双语:《新疆的反恐、去极端化斗争与人权保障》白皮书

  • A+
所属分类:白皮书
摘要

Full Text: The Fight Against Terrorism and Extremism and Human Rights Protection in Xinjiang

国务院新闻办公室18日发表《新疆的反恐、去极端化斗争与人权保障》白皮书

新疆的反恐、去极端化斗争与人权保障

The Fight Against Terrorism and Extremism and Human Rights Protection in Xinjiang

 

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

 

2019年3月

March 2019

 

目录

Contents

 

前言

Foreword

 

一、新疆是中国领土不可分割的一部分

I. Xinjiang Has Long Been an Inseparable Part of Chinese Territory

 

二、恐怖主义、极端主义在新疆的由来

II. The Origin of Terrorism and Extremism in Xinjiang

 

三、暴力恐怖和宗教极端行为严重践踏人权

III. Violent Terrorism and Religious Extremism Are Grave Abuses of Human Rights

 

四、依法严厉打击恐怖主义和极端主义

IV. Striking at Terrorism and Extremism in Accordance with the Law

 

五、坚持把预防性反恐放在第一位

V. Giving Top Priority to a Preventive Counterterrorism Approach

 

六、探索出反恐、去极端化的有益经验

VI. Finding Experience for Counterterrorism and De-radicalization

 

七、积极参与反恐国际交流与合作

VII. International Counterterrorism Exchanges and Cooperation

 

结束语

Conclusion

 

前言

Foreword

 

恐怖主义是人类社会的公敌,是国际社会共同打击的对象。恐怖势力通过暴力、破坏、恐吓等手段,肆意践踏人权、戕害无辜生命、危害公共安全、制造社会恐慌,严重威胁世界和平与安宁。极端主义思想的渗透与蔓延极易催生暴力恐怖行为,对人们享有各项人权直接构成威胁。中国政府反对一切形式的恐怖主义、极端主义,对任何宣扬恐怖主义、极端主义,组织策划实施恐怖活动,侵犯公民人权的行为,依法严厉打击。

 

Terrorism is the common enemy of humanity, and the target of joint action by the international community. Terrorist forces, by means of violence, sabotage and intimidation, pose a serious threat to world peace and security by scorning human rights, slaughtering innocent people, endangering public security, and creating fear and panic in society. The infiltration and spread of extremism is a hotbed for violence and terror, constituting a direct threat to human rights. The Chinese government stands firmly against all forms of terrorism and extremism, and is relentless in striking hard, in accordance with the law, at any conduct advocating terrorism and extremism and any action that involves organizing, planning and carrying out terrorist activities, or infringing upon citizens’ human rights.

 

一段时间以来,中国新疆地区深受民族分裂势力、宗教极端势力、暴力恐怖势力(以下简称“三股势力”)的叠加影响,恐怖袭击事件频繁发生,对各族人民生命财产安全造成极大危害,严重践踏了人类尊严。面对恐怖主义、极端主义的现实威胁,新疆采取果断措施,依法开展反恐怖主义和去极端化斗争,有效遏制了恐怖活动多发频发势头,最大限度保障了各族人民群众的生存权、发展权等基本权利。

 

For some time, China’s Xinjiang, under the combined influence of separatists, religious extremists and terrorists, has seen frequent incidents of terrorist attacks, which have been detrimental to the life and property of people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang and have trampled on people’s dignity. In the face of these real threats, Xinjiang has taken resolute action to fight terrorism and extremism in accordance with the law, effectively curbing the frequent occurrences of terrorist activities and ensuring, to the maximum extent, the rights to life and development of people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang.

 

中国是社会主义法治国家,尊重和保障人权是中国的宪法原则。中国新疆的反恐怖主义和去极端化斗争,是国际社会反恐怖斗争的重要组成部分,完全符合联合国打击恐怖主义、维护基本人权的宗旨和原则。

 

A country under the rule of law, China respects and protects human rights in accordance with the principles of its Constitution. China’s fight against terrorism and extremism is an important part of the same battle being waged by the international community; it is in keeping with the purposes and principles of the United Nations to combat terrorism and safeguard basic human rights. 

一、新疆是中国领土不可分割的一部分

I. Xinjiang Has Long Been an Inseparable Part of Chinese Territory

 

新疆地处中国西北,位于亚欧大陆腹地,面积166万多平方公里,与蒙古国、俄罗斯、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、阿富汗、巴基斯坦、印度8个国家接壤。新疆自古就是多民族聚居、多文化交汇、多宗教并存的地区,是东西方文明交流的重要通道,著名的“丝绸之路”在此将古代中国与世界联系起来。在悠久的历史进程中,各民族交往、交流、交融,共居、共学、共事、共乐,和睦相处、和衷共济、和谐发展。

 

Xinjiang is situated in northwest China and the hinterland of the Eurasian Continent, covering an area of 1.66 million sq km. It borders eight countries: Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. Since ancient times, Xinjiang has been home to various ethnic groups, and different cultures and religions coexist. It has also been an important channel for communication between civilizations of the East and the West, and was an important section of the famed Silk Road which linked ancient China with the rest of the world. In the long historical process, these ethnic groups have communicated and merged with each other, while living, studying, working and developing together in harmony.

 

新疆自古就是中国领土。包括新疆天山南北的广大地区古称西域,早在先秦时期就同中原地区保持着密切联系。随着秦、汉两个统一的封建王朝的建立,多民族大一统成为中国历史发展的主脉,新疆地区始终在中国统一多民族国家格局下发展。公元前60年,西汉在新疆地区设立西域都护府,标志着新疆地区正式纳入中国版图。公元123年,东汉改西域都护府为西域长史府,继续行使管理西域的职权。三国曹魏政权继承汉制,在西域设戊己校尉。西晋在西域设置西域长史和戊己校尉管理军政事务。隋代,结束了中原长期割据状态,扩大了郡县制在西域的范围。唐代,中央政权对西域的管理大为加强,先后设置安西大都护府和北庭大都护府统辖天山南北,于阗王国自称唐朝宗属,随唐朝国姓李。宋代,西域地方政权与宋朝保持着朝贡关系,高昌回鹘尊中朝(宋)为舅,自称西州外甥。喀喇汗王朝多次派使臣向宋朝朝贡。元代,设北庭都元帅府、宣慰司等管理军政事务,加强了对西域的管辖。明代,中央政权设立哈密卫作为管理西域事务的机构。清代,清政府平定准噶尔叛乱,中国西北边界得以确定。此后,对新疆地区实行了更加系统的治理政策。1762年设立伊犁将军,实行军政合一的军府体制;1884年在新疆地区建省。1949年中华人民共和国成立,新疆和平解放。1955年成立新疆维吾尔自治区。在中国共产党领导下,新疆经济社会面貌发生了翻天覆地的变化,进入历史上最好的繁荣发展时期。尽管新疆地区历史上曾出现过一些王朝、汗国,但它们都是中国疆域内的地方政权形式,都是中国的一部分,从来不是独立国家。新疆是中国领土不可分割的一部分不容置疑。

 

Xinjiang has long been an inseparable part of Chinese territory. The vast areas both north and south of the Tianshan Mountains, called the Western Regions in ancient times, were in close contact with the Central Plains as early as the pre-Qin period (c. 2100-221 BC). With the establishment of the unified feudal dynasties Qin (221-206 BC) and Han (206 BC-AD 220), multi-ethnic unification has been the norm in China’s historical development, and therefore Xinjiang has always been part of a unitary multi-ethnic China. In 60 BC, government of the Western Han Dynasty established the Western Regions Frontier Command in Xinjiang, officially making Xinjiang a part of Chinese territory.

 

In 123, during the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Western Regions Frontier Command was replaced by the Western Regions Garrison Command, which continued exercising administration over the Western Regions. The Kingdom of Wei (220-265) of the Three Kingdoms Period adopted the Han system, stationing a garrison commander to rule the Western Regions. The Western Jin Dynasty (265-316) stationed a garrison commander and a governor to exercise military and political administration over the Western Regions. The Sui Dynasty (581-618) ended the long-term division of the Central Plains, and expanded the areas in the Western Regions that adopted the system of prefectures and counties. In the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the central government strengthened its rule over the Western Regions by establishing the Grand Anxi Frontier Command and the Grand Beiting Frontier Command to administer the Western Regions. The ruling clan of the Kingdom of Yutian asserted it was related by blood to the Tang Dynasty and changed its surname to Li, the surname of the Tang ruling house. In the Song Dynasty (960-1279), local regimes of the Western Regions paid tribute to the central authorities. The king of one of the regimes, the Gaochang Uygur Kingdom, honored the imperial Song court as “Uncle” and called himself “Nephew in the Western Regions”; while the Karahan Kingdom sent envoys many times to pay tribute to the Song court. In the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), the central government strengthened administration over the Western Regions by establishing the Beiting Command and the Pacification Commissioner’s Office to manage military and political affairs. In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), the central authorities set up the Hami Garrison Command to manage local affairs. In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the imperial court quelled a rebellion launched by the Junggar regime, defining the northwestern border of China. It then adopted more systematic policies for governing Xinjiang. In 1762, the Qing government established the post of Ili General and adopted a mechanism combining military and political administration; in 1884, it established a province in Xinjiang.

 

In 1949, the People’s Republic of China was founded, and Xinjiang was liberated peacefully. In 1955, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was established. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, Xinjiang has witnessed fundamental social and economic change, and it is in its best period of prosperity and development. Although there were some kingdoms and khanates in Xinjiang in the past, they were all local regimes within the territory of China and constituted part of the country; they were never independent countries. It is indisputable that Xinjiang is an inseparable part of Chinese territory.

 

新疆地区历来是多民族聚居地区。从古至今,新疆地区一直生活着很多民族,各民族迁徙往来频繁。最早开发新疆的是春秋战国时期生活在天山南北的塞人、月氏人、乌孙人、羌人、龟兹人、焉耆人、于阗人、疏勒人、莎车人、楼兰人、车师人等。秦汉时期的匈奴人、汉人、羌人,魏晋南北朝时期的鲜卑、柔然、高车、嚈哒、吐谷浑,隋唐时期的突厥、吐蕃、回纥,宋辽金时期的契丹,元明清时期的蒙古、女真、党项、哈萨克、柯尔克孜、满、锡伯、达斡尔、回、乌孜别克、塔塔尔族等,每个历史时期都有不同民族的大量人口进出新疆地区,都是新疆的共同开拓者。至19世纪末,已有维吾尔、汉、哈萨克、蒙古、回、柯尔克孜、满、锡伯、塔吉克、达斡尔、乌孜别克、塔塔尔、俄罗斯共13个主要民族定居新疆,形成维吾尔族人口居多、多民族聚居分布的格局。新疆地区既是新疆各民族的家园,更是中华民族共同家园的组成部分。

 

Xinjiang has been a multi-ethnic region since ancient times. Down the ages, many ethnic groups have lived here, frequently migrating and communicating with each other. The earliest explorers of Xinjiang included the Sai, Rouzhi, Wusun, Qiang, Qiuci, Yanqi, Yutian, Shule, Shache, Loulan and Cheshi in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods (770-221 BC). Following them were peoples entering Xinjiang in large numbers in different periods: the Xiongnu (Hun), Han, and Qiang in the Qin and Han dynasties; the Xianbei, Rouran, Gaoche, Yeda, and Tuyuhun in the period of the Wei, Jin, and Northern and Southern Dynasties (220-589); the Turk, Tubo, and Ouigour peoples in the period of the Sui and Tang dynasties (581-907); the Khitans in the period of the Song, Liao, and Jin dynasties (916-1279); the Mongolian, Jurchen, Dangxiang (Tangut), Kazak, Kirgiz, Manchu, Xibe, Daur, Hui, Uzbek, and Tatar peoples in the period of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties (1279-1911). By the end of the 19th century, 13 ethnic groups – the Uygur, Han, Kazak, Mongolian, Hui, Kirgiz, Manchu, Xibe, Tajik, Daur, Uzbek, Tatar, and Russian – had settled in Xinjiang, with the Uygurs having the largest population. The multi-ethnic region constitutes an integral part of the Chinese nation.

 

维吾尔族是经过长期迁徙、民族融合形成的,不是突厥人后裔。维吾尔族先民的主体是隋唐时期活动在蒙古高原的回纥人,曾经有乌护、乌纥、袁纥、韦纥、回纥等多种译名。当时,为了反抗突厥的压迫和奴役,回纥联合铁勒诸部中的仆固、同罗等部组成了回纥部落联盟。744年,统一了回纥各部的首领骨力裴罗受唐朝册封。788年,回纥统治者上书唐朝,自请改为“回鹘”。840年,回鹘汗国被攻破,回鹘人除一部分迁入内地同汉人融合外,其余分为三支:一支迁往吐鲁番盆地和今天的吉木萨尔地区,建立了高昌回鹘王国;一支迁往河西走廊,与当地诸族交往融合,形成裕固族;一支迁往帕米尔以西,分布在中亚至今喀什一带,与葛逻禄、样磨等部族一起建立了喀喇汗王朝,并相继融合了吐鲁番盆地的汉人、塔里木盆地的焉耆人、龟兹人、于阗人、疏勒人等,构成近代维吾尔族的主体。元代,维吾尔族先民在汉语中又称“畏兀儿”。元明时期,新疆地区各民族进一步融合,蒙古人尤其是察合台汗国的蒙古人基本和畏兀儿人融为一体,为畏兀儿补充了新鲜血液。1934年,新疆省发布政府令,决定统一使用“维吾尔”作为汉文规范称谓,意为维护你我团结,首次准确表达了“Uyghur”名称的本意。

 

The Uygur ethnic group came into being in the long process of migration and ethnic integration; they are not descendants of the Turks. The main ancestors of the Uygurs were the Ouigour people living on the Mongolian Plateau during the Sui and Tang dynasties. We find that many different names were used to refer to the Ouigour people in historical records. Historically, to resist oppression and slavery by the Turks, the Ouigour people united with some of the Tiele tribes to form the Ouigour tribal alliance. In 744, the Tang court conferred a title of nobility on Kutlug Bilge Kaghan, who united the Ouigour tribes. In 788, the then Ouigour ruler wrote to the Tang emperor, requesting to have their name changed to “Huihu” (Uygur). After the Uygur Khanate suffered a major defeat in war in 840, some of them moved inland to live with the Han people, the rest of the surviving Uygurs were divided into three sub-groups. One of the sub-groups moved to the Turpan Basin and the modern Jimsar region, where they founded the Gaochang Uygur Kingdom. Another moved to the Hexi Corridor, where they merged with local ethnic groups to become what was later known as the Yugu people. The third sub-group moved to the west of Pamir, scattered in areas from Central Asia to Kashgar, and joined the Karluk and Yagma peoples in founding the Karahan Kingdom. There they merged with the Han people in the Turpan Basin and the Yanqi, Qiuci, Yutian, Shule, and other peoples in the Tarim Basin to form the main body of the modern Uygur group. In the Yuan Dynasty, ancestors of the modern Uygur people were called the “畏兀儿” people in the Chinese language. In the Yuan and Ming dynasties, the various ethnic groups in Xinjiang further merged; Mongolians, especially those of the Chagatai Khanate, were fused with the Uygurs, adding fresh blood to the Uygur group. In 1934, Xinjiang issued a government order, stipulating that “维吾尔” would be the standard Chinese name for Uygurs, which for the first time expressed the accurate meaning of “Uygur”: to maintain unity among the people.

 

新疆地区各民族文化是中华文化不可分割的一部分。早在先秦时期,新疆地区就与中原地区展开了密切交流。考古证实,新疆地区出土的彩陶就受到中原地区仰韶文化的影响,在河南安阳的商代妇好墓中,陪葬了大量新疆和田玉制成的器物。西汉统一新疆地区后,汉语成为当地官府文书中的通用语之一,中原地区的农业生产技术、礼仪制度、书籍、音乐舞蹈等在新疆地区广泛传播。与此同时,琵琶、羌笛等乐器也由新疆地区或者通过新疆地区传入中原地区,对中原地区音乐产生重大影响。中华文化宝库中,就包括维吾尔族十二木卡姆艺术、哈萨克族阿依特斯艺术、柯尔克孜族史诗《玛纳斯》、蒙古族史诗《江格尔》等各民族的文化瑰宝。不可否认,新疆地区文化受到伊斯兰文化影响,但这既没有改变新疆地区文化属于中华文明的特质和走向,也没有改变新疆地区文化属于中华文化一部分的客观事实。增强中华文化认同是新疆各民族文化繁荣发展之魂,只有把中华文化作为情感依托、心灵归宿和精神家园,才能促进新疆各民族文化的繁荣发展。

 

Xinjiang ethnic cultures are an inseparable part of Chinese civilization. As early as the pre-Qin period, Xinjiang was in close contact with the Central Plains. Archaeological studies demonstrate that painted pottery-ware unearthed in Xinjiang shows the influence of the Yangshao Culture in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, while many articles made from Xinjiang’s Hetian jade were unearthed from the Shang Dynasty (c.1600-c.1100 BC) Tomb of Fu Hao in Anyang, Henan in central China. After the Western Han (206 BC-AD 25) united Xinjiang, Chinese language became one of the official languages used in government documents of that region. Agricultural production techniques, the system of etiquette, books, and music and dances of the Central Plains spread widely in Xinjiang. Pipa (the four-stringed Chinese lute), the Qiang flute, and other musical instruments were introduced to the Central Plains from or via Xinjiang and exerted a great influence on local music. The treasure house of Chinese culture boasts elements of the Uygur Muqam, the Kazak Aytes art, the Kirgiz epic Manas, the Mongolian epic Jangar, and many other cultural gems of various ethnic groups. It is undeniable that Xinjiang was influenced by Islamic culture, but this did not halt the flow of local cultures into the Chinese civilization, nor did it alter the fact that they were part of Chinese culture. Having a stronger sense of identity with Chinese culture is essential to the prosperity and development of ethnic cultures in Xinjiang. Only by regarding Chinese culture as an emotional support and spiritual home, can we promote the prosperity and development of ethnic cultures in Xinjiang.

 

新疆地区历来是多种宗教并存的地区。在原始社会,新疆地区的居民就产生了原始宗教观念,并逐步形成了萨满教。公元前4世纪以前,新疆地区流行的是原始宗教。从公元前4世纪起,盛行于东西方的一些宗教沿着丝绸之路陆续传入新疆地区。最先传入的是祆教。大约在公元前1世纪,佛教传入新疆地区,逐渐成为占主导地位的宗教,形成以佛教为主、多种宗教并存格局,并先后形成了于阗、疏勒、龟兹、高昌等著名佛教中心。公元4世纪至10世纪,佛教进入鼎盛时期。同期,祆教流行于新疆各地,吐鲁番地区尤为盛行。5世纪前后,道教传入新疆,主要盛行于吐鲁番、哈密等地,至清代传播到新疆大部分地区并一度复兴。6世纪,摩尼教和景教(基督教聂斯脱利派)相继传入新疆。10世纪至14世纪,景教随着许多地方回鹘等民族改信而逐步兴盛。9世纪末10世纪初,伊斯兰教传入新疆南部,新疆原有宗教格局再次发生变化。喀喇汗王朝在接受伊斯兰教后,于10世纪中叶向信仰佛教的于阗王国发动了40余年的宗教战争,11世纪初攻灭于阗,将伊斯兰教强制推行到这一地区,形成了南疆以伊斯兰教为主、北疆以佛教为主,伊斯兰教与佛教并立的格局。14世纪中叶,东察合台汗国统治者以战争等强制手段,将伊斯兰教逐渐推行到塔里木盆地北缘、吐鲁番盆地和哈密一带。至16世纪初,新疆地区形成了以伊斯兰教为主、多种宗教并存的格局。18世纪开始,基督教、天主教、东正教相继传入新疆地区。以伊斯兰教为主、多种宗教并存的格局一直延续至今。由此可见,一教或两教为主、多教并存是新疆宗教格局的历史特点,交融共存是新疆宗教关系的主流。伊斯兰教既不是维吾尔族等民族天生信仰的宗教,也不是其唯一信仰的宗教。直到今天,仍有不少群众不信仰宗教或信仰其他宗教。

 

Xinjiang has long been a multi-religious region. In primitive society, Xinjiang residents followed primitive religion from which Shamanism evolved. Before the fourth century BC primitive religion was practiced in Xinjiang. Later, a succession of religions popular in the East and the West were introduced into Xinjiang via the Silk Road, the first of which was Zoroastrianism.

 

Around the first century BC Buddhism was introduced into Xinjiang and gradually became the major religion, coexisting with many other religions, and Yutian, Shule, Qiuci, Gaochang, and other renowned Buddhist centers were formed. From the fourth to the 10th century, Buddhism reached its peak, while in the same period Zoroastrianism proliferated throughout Xinjiang, particularly in the Turpan area. Around the fifth century, Taoism was introduced into Xinjiang, becoming prevalent mainly in Turpan and Hami. It spread to most parts of Xinjiang and experienced a revival during the Qing Dynasty. In the sixth century, Manichaeism and Nestorianism were introduced into Xinjiang. From the 10th to the 14th century, Nestorianism flourished as the Uygur and some other peoples converted to it in many parts of Xinjiang.

 

In the late ninth and early 10th century, Islam was introduced into southern Xinjiang, changing the religious profile of Xinjiang again. After the Karahan Khanate accepted Islam, in the mid-10th century it launched a religious war against the Buddhist Kingdom of Yutian, and the war lasted for more than 40 years. In the early 11th century, the Karahan Khanate conquered Yutian and imposed Islam in that region. Thereafter, Islam dominated southern Xinjiang while Buddhism dominated northern Xinjiang. In the mid-14th century, the rulers of the Eastern Chagatai Khanate spread Islam to the northern edge of the Tarim Basin, the Turpan Basin and Hami by war and compulsion. By the early 16th century many religions coexisted in Xinjiang, with Islam predominant. Beginning in the 18th century, Protestantism, Catholicism, and the Eastern Orthodox Church were introduced into Xinjiang. Islam has ever since been the principal religion in Xinjiang, coexisting with a number of other religions.

 

The history of Xinjiang shows that the coexistence of multiple religions with one or two predominant has always been a basic characteristic of the religious structure of Xinjiang, and blending and coexistence of different religions has been the norm there. Islam is neither an indigenous belief of the Uygurs and other ethnic groups, nor the sole one of the Uygur people. Today in Xinjiang, a fairly large number of people do not believe in religion or believe in religions other than Islam.

二、恐怖主义、极端主义在新疆的由来

II. The Origin of Terrorism and Extremism in Xinjiang

 

分裂主义是新疆恐怖主义、极端主义产生的温床。长期以来,恐怖势力与极端势力大肆歪曲、编造、篡改新疆历史,夸大民族间的文化差异,煽动民族隔阂和仇恨,鼓吹宗教极端,为实施分裂活动大造声势。

 

Separatism is the hotbed in which terrorism and extremism take root in Xinjiang. For a long time, terrorist and extremist forces have been beating the drum for separatist activities by distorting, fabricating and falsifying the history of Xinjiang, exaggerating the cultural differences between ethnic groups, instigating isolation and hatred, and advocating religious extremism.

 

19世纪末20世纪初,境内外狂热的分裂分子与宗教极端分子,利用老殖民主义者炮制的一整套所谓的“泛突厥主义”“泛伊斯兰主义”理论,妄称维吾尔人是新疆唯一的“主人”,新疆各民族文化不是中华文化,伊斯兰教是新疆地区各民族唯一信仰的宗教等;鼓噪所有操突厥语和信奉伊斯兰教的民族联合起来,组成一个“政教合一”的国家,建立“东突厥斯坦”;否认中国各民族共同缔造伟大祖国的历史,叫嚣“要反对突厥民族以外的一切民族”,消灭“异教徒”。

 

At the turn of the 20th century, separatists and religious extremists in and outside China, inheriting the so-called theories of “Pan-Turkism” and “Pan-Islamism” created by former colonialists, spread the word that Uygurs were the only “masters” of Xinjiang, that the ethnic cultures of Xinjiang were not Chinese culture, and that Islam was the only religion practiced by ethnic groups of Xinjiang. They incited all ethnic groups speaking Turki and believing in Islam to join in creating the theocratic state of so-called “East Turkistan”. They denied the history of China jointly built by all its ethnic groups, and clamored for “opposition to all ethnic groups other than Turks” and for the “annihilation of pagans”.

 

20世纪初至40年代末,“东突”势力为了达到分裂和控制新疆、建立所谓的“东突厥斯坦”国家的目的,大肆传播“泛突厥主义”“泛伊斯兰主义”,宣扬暴力恐怖主义,组织策划一系列分裂活动。1915年,分裂分子麦斯武德回到伊犁,开办学校,公开向学生传播分裂思想。1933年11月12日,以穆罕默德·伊敏等为首的“东突”分裂势力建立了所谓的“东突厥斯坦伊斯兰共和国”,遭到新疆各族人民的反对,不到三个月这场闹剧就草草收场。1944年11月12日,以艾力汗·吐烈为首的“东突”分裂势力建立了所谓的“东突厥斯坦共和国”,仅一年多即土崩瓦解。此后,形形色色的分裂组织和分裂分子打着“东突”旗号进行颠覆分裂活动,妄图建立所谓的“东突厥斯坦”国家。

 

From the early 20th century to the late 1940s, the “East Turkistan” forces, in an attempt to split and control Xinjiang and establish their state, promoted and spread the ideas of “Pan-Turkism”, “Pan-Islamism”, and violence and terrorism. They organized and planned a series of separatist activities. In 1915 separatist Maswud returned to Ili, opened a school and publicly preached separatism to the students. On November 12, 1933, Mohammad Imin founded the so-called “East Turkistan Islamic Republic”, but the farce ended in less than three months because of strong opposition from the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang. On November 12, 1944, separatists led by Elihan Torae founded the so-called “Republic of East Turkistan”, which soon collapsed a year later. Afterwards, a series of separatist organizations and individuals continued their subversive and separatist activities under the banner of “East Turkistan” in a vain attempt to establish their own state.

 

1949年新中国成立后,在中国共产党的领导下,新疆各族人民共同团结奋斗、共同建设美好家园,实现了社会稳定、经济发展和人民生活改善。但“东突”势力并不甘心失败,在国际反华势力的支持下,不择手段地组织策划实施各种分裂破坏活动。20世纪50年代初期,分裂分子在新疆制造了多起暴乱,他们的口号是“维吾尔人应该在星月旗下团结起来”“建立伊斯兰共和国”。60年代,先后发生了“伊塔事件”、“东突厥斯坦人民革命党”叛乱、南疆阿洪诺夫集团武装暴乱。70年代末80年代初,宗教极端主义进一步向新疆渗透。80年代以后,宗教极端主义与恐怖主义沆瀣一气、兴风作浪,成为严重危害新疆稳定安全的浊流。

 

Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang have, under the leadership of the CPC, worked together to build a better Xinjiang; they have maintained social stability, achieved economic growth, and improved lives for the people. The “East Turkistan” forces, however, have not resigned themselves to defeat. With the support of international anti-China forces, the “East Turkistan” forces have resorted to all means, fair or foul, to organize, plan and carry out acts of separatism and sabotage. In the early 1950s the separatists instigated many riots in Xinjiang, calling on Uygurs to “unite under the moon-and-star banner to create a republic of Islam”. In the 1960s there were the riots in Ili and Tacheng on the China-Russia border, the riot of the “East Turkistan People’s Revolutionary Party”, and the armed rebellion of the Gang of Ahongnof in southern Xinjiang. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, religious extremism made further inroads into Xinjiang. It soon blended with terrorism to stir up social unrest in the region, seriously undermining local stability and security.

 

20世纪90年代以来,特别是美国“9·11”事件后,受国际局势变化和恐怖主义、极端主义全球蔓延的影响,境内外“东突”势力加强勾连,扬言通过发动“圣战”建立“东突厥斯坦”国家。他们打着民族、宗教的幌子,利用群众朴素的民族宗教感情,煽动宗教狂热、大肆散布宗教极端思想,蛊惑煽动群众,实施暴力恐怖活动,使一些人走上违法犯罪的道路。他们大肆鼓吹“圣战殉教进天堂”等邪说,把一些人变成完全受其精神控制的极端分子和恐怖分子,甚至变成杀人不眨眼的魔鬼。

 

Since the 1990s, especially after the September 11 attacks in the US, the “East Turkistan” forces inside and outside China have stepped up their collaboration as terrorism and extremism spread around the globe, trying desperately to establish “East Turkistan” through “Jihad” (holy war). In the name of ethnicity and religion, they deceitfully used people’s ethnic identity and religious belief to instigate religious fanaticism, spread religious extremism, and incite the common people to join in violent and terrorist activities. They brainwashed people with the “Jihad”, abetting them to “die for their belief in order to enter heaven”. Some of the most susceptible followers, no longer possessed of any self-control, became extremists and terrorists who heartlessly slaughtered innocent people.

 

宗教极端主义打着伊斯兰教旗号,但完全违背宗教教义,并不是伊斯兰教。长期以来,他们把极端思想与宗教捆绑在一起,与广大信教群众捆绑在一起,与社会生活捆绑在一起,煽动群众“除了真主以外不能服从任何人”,教唆信教群众抵制政府管理;鼓吹把一切不遵循极端做法的人都视为异教徒、宗教叛徒、民族败类,煽动辱骂、排斥、孤立不信教群众、党员干部和爱国宗教人士;否定和排斥一切世俗文化,宣扬不能看电视、听广播、读报刊,强迫葬礼不哭、婚礼不笑,禁止人们唱歌跳舞,强制妇女穿戴蒙面罩袍;泛化“清真”概念,不仅在食品上,而且在药品、化妆品、服装等物品上都打上清真标签;无视新疆各民族共同创造的多姿多彩、辉煌灿烂的传统文化,企图割裂中华文化与新疆各民族文化的联系。这一切,都是对现代文明的否定,都是对人类进步的破坏,都是对公民人权的粗暴侵犯。

 

Religious extremism under the banner of Islam runs counter to Islamic doctrines. It is not Islam. For a long time, separatists have tied extremism to religion, to religious believers, and to society as a whole. They tell people not to obey anyone but Allah and incite them to resist government management. They abuse those who do not follow the path of extremism as pagans, traitors and scum, urging their followers to verbally assault, reject, and isolate non-believers, Party members and officials, and patriotic religious individuals. They deny and reject all forms of secular culture, preaching a life without TV, radio and newspaper, forbidding people to weep at funerals or laugh at weddings, imposing bans on singing and dancing, and forcing women to wear heavily-veiled black long gowns. They over-generalize the “Halal” concept, stamping food, medicine, cosmetics, clothing, etc. with the Halal symbol. They turn a blind eye to the diverse and splendid cultures of Xinjiang created by all its ethnic groups, trying to sever the ties between the Chinese culture and the ethnic cultures of Xinjiang. All this indicates their denial of modern civilization, rejection of human progress, and gross violation of the human rights of their fellow citizens.

三、暴力恐怖和宗教极端行为严重践踏人权

III. Violent Terrorism and Religious Extremism Are Grave Abuses of Human Rights

 

在分裂主义的影响下,新疆恐怖主义势力、极端主义势力大肆实施破坏活动,给新疆社会稳定带来极大危害,给各族人民造成极大伤痛。据不完全统计,自1990年至2016年底,“三股势力”在新疆等地共制造了数千起暴力恐怖案(事)件,造成大量无辜群众被害,数百名公安民警殉职,财产损失无法估算。

 

Terrorist and extremist forces in Xinjiang, driven by the goal of separatism, engaged in wildly sabotaging activities. This badly undermines local stability and brings enormous suffering to all ethnic groups in the region. Incomplete statistics show that from 1990 to the end of 2016, separatist, terrorist and extremist forces launched thousands of terrorist attacks in Xinjiang, killing large numbers of innocent people and hundreds of police officers, and causing immeasurable damage to property.

 

疯狂残害普通民众。1992年2月5日,正当中国各族人民欢度春节时,恐怖组织在乌鲁木齐市52路、30路公共汽车上实施了2起爆炸案件,炸毁公共汽车2辆,造成3人死亡、23人受伤。1997年2月25日,“东突”恐怖分子实施了乌鲁木齐市2路、10路、44路公共汽车爆炸案,炸毁3辆公共汽车,致使9人死亡、68名乘客重伤。2011年7月30日,2名恐怖分子在喀什市美食街路口劫持一辆卡车,持刀杀害司机后,驾车冲向人群,并下车持刀砍杀路边群众,造成8人死亡、27人受伤;次日,恐怖分子在该市人民西路香榭大街步行街疯狂砍杀路人,造成6人死亡、15人受伤。2012年2月28日,9名恐怖分子在喀什地区叶城县幸福路步行街持砍刀袭击群众,造成15人死亡、20人受伤。2014年3月1日,8名新疆籍恐怖分子在昆明市火车站广场和售票厅持砍刀疯狂砍杀群众,造成31人死亡、141人受伤。2014年4月30日,2名恐怖分子混入乌鲁木齐市火车南站出站口人群中,1人持匕首袭击群众,另1人引爆手提箱内爆炸装置,造成3人死亡、79人受伤。2014年5月22日,5名恐怖分子驾驶2辆越野车冲破乌鲁木齐市沙依巴克区公园北街早市防护栏,冲撞碾压群众,引爆爆炸装置,造成39人死亡、94人受伤。2015年9月18日,一伙恐怖分子袭击阿克苏地区拜城县一处煤矿,造成16人死亡、18人受伤。

 

Killing ordinary people. On February 5, 1992, while the whole of China was celebrating the Spring Festival, a terrorist group planted bombs on a No. 52 and a No. 30 bus in Urumqi, blowing up the 2 buses, killing 3 people and injuring 23 others. On February 25, 1997, “East Turkistan” terrorists caused explosions on a No. 2, a No. 10 and a No. 44 bus in Urumqi, destroying the 3 buses, killing 9 and causing serious injury to 68. On July 30, 2011, two terrorists hijacked a truck at the junction of a food street in Kashgar City, stabbed the driver to death, drove the truck into the crowd, and then attacked the public with their knives. In this incident, 8 were killed and 27 injured. The next day, knife-wielding terrorists randomly attacked pedestrians on Xiangxie Street, Renmin West Road, killing 6 and injuring 15. On February 28, 2012, nine knife-wielding terrorists attacked civilians on Xingfu Road, Yecheng County, Kashgar Prefecture, resulting in 15 deaths and 20 injuries. On March 1, 2014, eight knife-wielding Xinjiang terrorists attacked passengers at the Kunming Railway Station Square and the ticket lobby, leaving 31 dead and 141 injured. On April 30, 2014, two terrorists hid in the crowd at the exit of Urumqi Railway Station. One attacked people with his knife and the other detonated a device inside his suitcase, killing 3 and injuring 79. On May 22, 2014, five terrorists drove two SUVs through the fence of the morning fair of North Park Road of Saybagh District, Urumqi, into the crowd, and then detonated a bomb, claiming the life of 39 and leaving 94 injured. On September 18, 2015, terrorists attacked a coal mine in Baicheng County, Aksu Prefecture, causing 16 deaths and 18 injuries.

 

残忍杀害宗教人士。1993年8月24日,2名恐怖分子将喀什地区叶城县大清真寺主持阿不力孜大毛拉刺成重伤。1996年3月22日,2名恐怖分子蒙面持枪闯入阿克苏地区新和县伊斯兰教协会副会长、清真寺副主持阿克木司地克·阿吉家中,将其枪杀。1996年5月12日,在中国伊斯兰教协会副会长、新疆伊斯兰教协会会长、喀什市艾提尕尔清真寺哈提甫阿荣汗·阿吉前往清真寺主持宗教活动途中,被4名恐怖分子连刺21刀致重伤。1997年11月6日,恐怖团伙受境外“东突”组织指挥,将中国伊斯兰教协会委员、新疆阿克苏伊斯兰教协会会长、拜城县清真寺主持尤努斯·斯迪克大毛拉枪杀于赴清真寺做礼拜的途中。1998年1月27日,该恐怖团伙又将前往清真寺做礼拜的拜城县大清真寺主持阿不力孜·阿吉枪杀。2014年7月30日,74岁的新疆伊斯兰教协会副会长、喀什市艾提尕尔清真寺居玛·塔伊尔大毛拉在主持完晨礼后,被3名恐怖分子残忍杀害。

 

Assassinating religious leaders. On August 24, 1993, two terrorists stabbed Senior Mullah Abulizi, imam of the Great Mosque in Yecheng County, Kashgar Prefecture, leaving him seriously wounded. On March 22, 1996, two masked terrorists broke into the house of Akemusidike Aji, vice president of the Islamic Association of Xinhe County, Aksu Prefecture, and assistant imam of a mosque, and shot him dead. On May 12, 1996, Aronghan Aji, vice president of the China Islamic Association and president of Xinjiang Islamic Association, and hatip of Id Kah Mosque in Kashgar was stabbed 21 times by four terrorists on his way to a mosque and seriously wounded. On November 6, 1997, a terrorist group, under the command of the “East Turkistan” organization stationed abroad, shot and killed Senior Mullah Younusi Sidike, member of the China Islamic Association, president of Aksu Islamic Association and imam of the Great Mosque of Baicheng County, on his way to the mosque for worship. On January 27, 1998, this same group shot and killed Abulizi Aji, imam of the Great Mosque of Baicheng County on his way to the mosque for worship. On July 30, 2014, the 74-year-old Senior Mullah Juma Tayier, vice president of Xinjiang Islamic Association and imam of the Id Kah Mosque, was brutally killed by three terrorists on his way home after morning Fajr prayer.

 

严重危害公共安全。1998年5月23日,“东突解放组织”派遣境外受训恐怖分子入境,在乌鲁木齐商贸城、批发市场、旅社等多处人员密集场所投放40多枚化学自燃纵火装置,制造了15起纵火案。2008年3月7日,恐怖分子携带经过伪装可致机毁人亡的破坏装置登上从乌鲁木齐飞往北京的CZ6901航班,企图制造空难事件。2012年6月29日,在新疆和田飞往乌鲁木齐的GS7554航班上,6名恐怖分子试图劫机,计划效仿美国“9·11”事件发动恐怖袭击。2013年10月28日,3名新疆籍恐怖分子携带31桶汽油、20个打火机、5把长短刀及铁棍等作案物品,驾驶吉普车闯入北京天安门东侧人行便道,疯狂冲撞游客及执勤民警,撞上金水桥护栏受阻后,点燃车内汽油,致使车辆燃烧,造成包括1名外籍游客在内的2人死亡、40余人受伤。

 

Endangering public security. On May 23, 1998, the East Turkistan Liberation Organization dispatched trained terrorists from abroad into Xinjiang who placed more than 40 incendiary devices with self-ignition equipment in crowded places such as shopping malls, wholesale markets and hotels in Urumqi, resulting in 15 arson cases. On March 7, 2008, terrorists carried a disguised explosive device that could cause catastrophic crash onto Flight CZ6901 from Urumqi to Beijing, intending to blow up the plane. On June 29, 2012, six terrorists attempted to hijack Flight GS7554 from Hotan to Urumqi following the example of the September 11 attacks. On October 28, 2013, three Xinjiang terrorists drove a jeep carrying 31 barrels of gasoline, 20 ignitors, 5 knives, and several iron bars onto the sidewalk on the east of Tiananmen Square in central Beijing and accelerated it towards tourists and policemen on duty, until it crashed into the barrier of the Golden Water Bridge. They then ignited the gasoline to set the jeep on fire, resulting in deaths of 2 people including 1 foreigner and injuries to over 40.

 

公然袭击政府机构。1996年8月27日,6名恐怖分子乘车到喀什地区叶城县江格勒斯乡政府,割断电话线,杀死1名副乡长和1名值班警察;随后又将3名治安员和1名水管员绑架到10公里外的戈壁滩杀害。1999年10月24日,一伙恐怖分子携枪支、砍刀、燃烧爆炸装置,袭击喀什地区泽普县赛力乡公安派出所,连续投掷燃烧瓶和爆炸装置、开枪射击,枪杀1名联防队员和1名被羁押审查的犯罪嫌疑人,击伤1名民警和1名联防队员,烧毁派出所10间房屋、1辆吉普车、3辆摩托车。2008年8月4日,恐怖分子驾驶一辆偷窃来的自卸货车,在喀什市色满路从背后冲撞正在出操的公安边防支队武警队列,并投掷自制手雷,造成16人死亡、16人受伤。2013年4月23日,喀什地区巴楚县色力布亚镇一伙恐怖分子制作爆炸装置时,被入户走访的社区工作人员发现,3名社区工作人员当场被杀,闻讯赶来的镇政府工作人员、民警遭恐怖分子伏击,共造成15人死亡、2人重伤。2013年6月26日,多名恐怖分子先后袭击吐鲁番地区鄯善县鲁克沁镇派出所、特巡警中队、镇政府和建筑工地,造成24人死亡、25人受伤。2014年7月28日,一伙恐怖分子持刀斧袭击喀什地区莎车县艾力西湖镇政府、派出所,其中部分恐怖分子窜至该县荒地镇,砍杀群众,打砸焚烧过往车辆,造成37人死亡、13人受伤,31辆车被打砸、焚烧。2014年9月21日,巴音郭楞蒙古自治州轮台县阳霞镇派出所、农贸市场、铁热克巴扎乡派出所、县城一商铺等处遭到恐怖分子爆炸袭击,造成10人死亡、54人受伤,79辆汽车受损。2016年12月28日,4名恐怖分子驾车冲入和田地区墨玉县县委院内,引爆自制燃爆装置,砍杀工作人员,造成2人死亡、3人受伤。

 

Attacking government organs. On August 27, 1996, six terrorists drove to the seat of Jianggelesi Township government, Yecheng County, Kashgar Prefecture, cut the telephone line, and killed a deputy township head and a policeman on duty. They then kidnapped three security men and a plumber, drove them to the desert ten kilometers away, and killed them. On October 24, 1999, a group of terrorists armed with guns, knives, and explosive devices attacked a police station in Saili Township, Zepu County, Kashgar Prefecture. They threw incendiary bottles and explosive devices at the station, shot dead a public security guard and a criminal suspect in custody, injured a policeman and a public security guard, and burned 10 rooms, 1 jeep and 3 motorcycles in the police station. On August 4, 2008, terrorists drove a stolen dump truck into the back of a queue of armed frontier police at drill on Seman Road, Kashgar City, and threw homemade grenades, leaving 16 dead and 16 injured. On April 23, 2013, when terrorists were found making explosives at their home in Selibuya Town, Bachu County, Kashgar Prefecture by three visiting community workers, they killed them on the spot and then attacked local government staff and police coming to their rescue, resulting in 15 deaths and 2 severely injured. On June 26, 2013, terrorists launched attacks at the police station, patrol squadron, seat of local government and construction sites of Lukeqin Township, Shanshan County, Turpan Prefecture, resulting in 24 deaths and 25 injuries. On July 28, 2014, terrorists with knives and axes attacked the government building and police station of Ailixihu Town, Shache County, Kashgar Prefecture. Some then moved on to Huangdi Town where they attacked civilians and smashed and burned passing vehicles, causing 37 deaths and 13 injuries and destroying 31 vehicles. On September 21, 2014, the police station and farmer’s market of Yangxia Town, the police station of Tierekebazha Town, and a store at the Luntai county seat, Bayingol Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture were hit by bomb blasts which claimed the life of 10, caused injuries to 54 and damaged 79 vehicles. On December 28, 2016, four terrorists drove into the courtyard of Moyu County government, Hotan Prefecture, detonated a homemade explosive device, and attacked government staff, leaving 2 dead and 3 injured.

 

蓄意制造暴乱骚乱。1990年4月5日,在“东突伊斯兰党”的组织策划下,一伙恐怖分子携带冲锋枪、手枪、炸药包、手榴弹等武器,纠集200余人攻击克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州阿克陶县巴仁乡政府,劫持人质10名,残杀武警6人,炸毁汽车2辆。1997年2月5日至8日,“东突伊斯兰真主党”策划、制造了伊宁市“2·5”严重打砸抢骚乱事件,残杀群众7人,打伤群众、公安民警、武警198人,其中重伤64人,毁坏汽车30余辆,烧毁民房2间。2009年7月5日,境内外“东突”势力里应外合,组织策划实施了震惊中外的乌鲁木齐市打砸抢烧严重暴力犯罪事件,数千名恐怖分子在市区多处同时行动,疯狂杀害群众,袭击政府机关、公安武警、居民住所、商店、公共交通设施等,共造成197人死亡、1700多人受伤、331个店铺和1325辆汽车被砸烧,众多市政公共设施损毁。

 

Planning riots. On April 5, 1990, incited by the East Turkistan Islamic Party (also known as Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement, East Turkistan Islamic Party of Allah, East Turkistan Islamic Hezbollah), a group of terrorists with submachine guns, pistols, explosive devices and grenades, mustered over 200 people to attack the government building of Baren Township, Akto County, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture, kidnapping 10 people, killing 6 armed police officers, and blowing up 2 vehicles. From February 5 to 8, 1997, this organization again perpetrated the Yining Incident. In the riots 7 people were killed and 198 injured, including civilians, public security officers and armed police officers, 64 of whom were severely wounded; more than 30 vehicles were damaged and 2 houses were burned down. On July 5, 2009, the “East Turkistan” forces inside and outside China engineered a riot in Urumqi which shocked the whole world. Thousands of terrorists attacked civilians, government organs, public security and police officers, residential houses, stores and public transportation facilities, causing 197 deaths and injuries to over 1,700, smashing and burning down 331 stores and 1,325 vehicles, and damaging many public facilities.

 

恐怖势力制造的暴力犯罪案件,一桩桩,一件件,充满血腥、令人发指。这些暴力恐怖和宗教极端行为,给新疆各族人民带来了深重灾难,充分暴露了其反人类、反文明、反社会的本质。

 

The violent crimes committed by terrorists are bloody and heinous. These inhuman, anti-social and barbaric acts have brought enormous suffering to all ethnic groups in Xinjiang. 

四、依法严厉打击恐怖主义和极端主义

IV. Striking at Terrorism and Extremism in Accordance with the Law

 

坚持法治思维、运用法治方式是新疆打击恐怖主义和极端主义的重要原则。针对严峻复杂的反恐形势和各族群众对打击暴力恐怖犯罪、保障生命财产安全的迫切要求,新疆对一切侵犯公民人权、危害公共安全、破坏民族团结、分裂国家的暴力恐怖活动,依法进行严厉打击。

 

It is important to stick to the principles of rule of law and a law-based approach in combatting terrorism and extremism in Xinjiang. The situation is severe and complex; members of all ethnic groups are insistent in their demands that violent and terrorist crimes be punished, and that their lives and property should be protected. Therefore, in accordance with the law, the local government strikes at all sorts of violent and terrorist activities that violate human rights, endanger public security, undermine ethnic unity, and split the country.

 

新疆的反恐怖主义工作、去极端化斗争始终在法治轨道上进行。《中华人民共和国宪法》《中华人民共和国刑法》《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》《中华人民共和国国家安全法》《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》《宗教事务条例》和最高人民法院、最高人民检察院、公安部、司法部联合发布的《关于办理恐怖活动和极端主义犯罪案件适用法律若干问题的意见》等相关法律法规,共同构成了国家反恐法律体系。新疆还结合本地区实际,依照《中华人民共和国立法法》《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》等法律规定,加快地方性法规的立法进程,先后出台了《新疆维吾尔自治区宗教事务条例》《新疆维吾尔自治区实施〈中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法〉办法》《新疆维吾尔自治区去极端化条例》,为遏制、打击恐怖主义、极端主义提供了有力的法律武器。

 

Counterterrorism and de-radicalization in Xinjiang has always been conducted in accordance with the law. Currently, China’s anti-terrorism law system is composed of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, the Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Criminal Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China, the National Security Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Counterterrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China, the Regulations on Religious Affairs, and the Opinions on Certain Issues Concerning the Application of Law in Handling Criminal Cases Involving Terrorism and Extremism jointly issued by the Supreme People’s Court, the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, the Ministry of Public Security, and the Ministry of Justice.

 

In view of local reality and in accordance with the Legislation Law of the People’s Republic of China and the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, Xinjiang has accelerated the enactment of local regulations, including the Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Religious Affairs, the Measures of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Implementing the Counterterrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China, and the Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on De-radicalization. These laws and regulations are powerful legal instruments to contain and combat terrorism and extremism.

 

依据上述法律法规,新疆按照“保护合法、制止非法、遏制极端、抵御渗透、打击犯罪”原则,既充分尊重和保障公民宗教信仰自由等权利,保护合法宗教活动,满足信教群众正常宗教需求,维护公民和组织的合法权益,又严厉打击各种形式的恐怖主义,禁止利用宗教传播极端思想、煽动民族仇恨、分裂国家等违法犯罪行为。自2014年以来,新疆打掉暴恐团伙1588个,抓获暴恐人员12995人,缴获爆炸装置2052枚,查处非法宗教活动4858起、涉及30645人,收缴非法宗教宣传品345229件。

 

In line with the above-mentioned laws and regulations, the local government upholds the principles of protecting lawful activities, curbing illegal actions, containing extremism, resisting infiltration, and preventing and punishing crimes. The local government fully respects and safeguards civil rights including freedom of religious belief. It protects lawful religious activities, fulfills the reasonable religious demands of believers, protects the legitimate rights and interests of citizens and organizations, strikes severely at all forms of terrorism, and forbids violations of the law and crimes such as spreading extremism, inciting ethnic hatred, and dividing the country by means of religion. Since 2014, Xinjiang has destroyed 1,588 violent and terrorist gangs, arrested 12,995 terrorists, seized 2,052 explosive devices, punished 30,645 people for 4,858 illegal religious activities, and confiscated 345,229 copies of illegal religious materials.

 

新疆司法机关始终坚持以事实为依据、以法律为准绳,全面贯彻执行宽严相济刑事政策,对组织、策划、实施暴力恐怖和宗教极端违法犯罪活动的首要分子、骨干成员、罪行重大者,以及曾因实施暴力恐怖、宗教极端违法犯罪活动受到行政、刑事处罚或者免予刑事处罚又实施暴力恐怖、宗教极端犯罪活动的人员,依法从重处罚;对罪行较轻,危害不大,能认罪悔罪者,以及未成年人和受蒙蔽、胁迫参加者,依法从轻处罚;对自首、立功者依法从轻或减轻处罚,充分发挥刑罚的教育改造和预防犯罪作用。在依法惩治犯罪的同时,司法机关通过依法保障被告人的辩护权、使用本民族语言文字诉讼等权利,体现程序公正和对公民基本权利的保护。

 

With facts as the basis and the law as the criterion, judicial organs in Xinjiang adopt a policy that strikes the right balance between compassion and severity. Ringleaders, core members, and major offenders who are held accountable for organizing, planning and implementing violent, terrorist and religious extremist crimes are severely punished in accordance with the law; repeat offenders – those who have previously received administrative and criminal punishment or have been exempt from criminal punishment after committing violent, terrorist and religious extremist crimes are found committing the same crimes again – are severely punished in accordance with the law; minor offenders who have pled guilty are sentenced leniently in accordance with the law; juvenile offenders, deluded offenders and coerced offenders are sentenced leniently in accordance with the law; offenders who have voluntarily surrendered themselves or who have helped in cracking the cases are sentenced leniently or have their prison terms reduced in accordance with the law. Punishment is used effectively to reform the offenders and prevent crimes. While they make sure real criminals are punished, judicial organs in Xinjiang protect the defendants’ right to defense and the right to use their own language in litigation to guarantee procedural justice and protect basic civil rights.

 

新疆依法开展去极端化工作,治理非法宗教活动、非法宗教宣传品、非法宗教网络传播,有力遏制了宗教极端思想的滋生蔓延。宗教极端主义干预行政、司法、教育、婚姻、医疗等现象得到有效遏制,学生入学率、巩固率大幅上升,群众对宗教极端思想危害性的认识明显提高。在依法去极端化的同时,新疆也加大对合法宗教活动的保护力度,相继出台或修订了《新疆维吾尔自治区宗教事务条例》等有关宗教事务管理的地方性法规。这些地方性法规明确了宗教团体、宗教活动场所、宗教教职人员的权利和义务,明确了合法宗教活动与非法宗教活动的界限,为各族群众进行合法宗教活动提供了法治保障。特别是近年来,扎实推进“七进两有”(水、电、路、气、讯、广播电视、文化书屋进清真寺,主麻清真寺有净身设施、有水冲厕所)、“九配备”(配备医药服务、电子显示屏、电脑、电风扇或空调、消防设施、天然气、饮水设备、鞋套或鞋套机、储物柜),极大地改善了宗教活动场所和宗教活动条件,保障了信教群众的正常宗教需求。

 

Law-based de-radicalization has been launched in Xinjiang to deal with illegal religious activities, illegal religious publicity materials, and illegal spread of religions through the internet, which has effectively curbed the breeding and spread of religious extremism. Religious extremism’s interference in administration, judicial affairs, education, marriage and medical services has been eradicated; school enrollment rate has increased significantly and continues to rise; the public has become more aware of the dangers of religious extremism. At the same time, lawful religious activities have been protected more effectively through the promulgation and amendment of local regulations concerning religious affairs, including the Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Religious Affairs. These local regulations specify the rights and interests of religious groups, religious staff, and venues for religious activities, and draw a clear line between lawful and illegal religious activities, providing legal guarantees for people of all ethnic groups to engage in lawful religious activities. In recent years, in particularly, mosques in Xinjiang have been equipped with running water, electricity, natural gas, radio and television facilities and libraries. Roads leading to mosques have been paved to make access easier. Bathing equipment and flushing toilets have been installed in Juma mosques. Other facilities newly installed or added to mosques include medical services, LED screens, computers, electric fans or air conditioners, fire-fighting equipment, drinking water facilities, shoe coverings or automatic dispenser of shoe coverings, and lockers. All this has greatly improved the conditions of venues for religious activities and better satisfy the reasonable religious demands of believers.

 

实践证明,依法开展反恐怖主义、去极端化斗争,弘扬了打击恐怖主义的正义性,满足了新疆各族人民对安全的殷切期待,维护了社会和谐稳定。

 

Our law-based de-radicalization effort and the fight against terrorism are a just cause that has met the expectations for safety of people from all ethnic groups in Xinjiang. Through such effort, we have maintained social harmony and stability.

五、坚持把预防性反恐放在第一位

V. Giving Top Priority to a Preventive Counterterrorism Approach

 

恐怖主义和极端主义宣扬不同宗教、文化、社会之间的不容忍,挑战人类公正与尊严,破坏和平与安全,对人权和可持续发展造成严重危害。打击恐怖主义和去极端化,既是世界性问题,也是世界性难题。多年来,许多国家或地区结合自身实际,积极探索打击和预防恐怖主义、极端主义的具体路径和办法。中国在借鉴吸收国际社会反恐经验的基础上,积极响应联合国大会关于《联合国全球反恐战略》(60/288)的决议,致力于“消除恐怖主义蔓延条件,预防和打击恐怖主义”。新疆立足本地区实际,深入开展反恐怖主义、去极端化斗争,坚持“一手抓打击、一手抓预防”,既依法严厉打击暴力恐怖犯罪,又重视开展源头治理,通过着力改善民生、加强法制宣传教育、依法设立职业技能教育培训中心(以下简称“教培中心”)进行帮扶教育等多种方式,最大限度保障公民的基本人权免遭恐怖主义和极端主义侵害。

 

Terrorism and extremism jeopardize human rights and sustainable development as they propagate intolerance between different religions, cultures and societies, challenge human justice and dignity, and do great harm to peace and security. Fighting terrorism and extremism is a common issue and arduous task faced by the entire world. For years, many countries and regions have been actively exploring concrete approaches and measures for combating and preventing terrorism and extremism that accord with their own conditions.

 

Based on experience learned from the international community, China has been active in implementing the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly concerning the United Nations Global Counterterrorism Strategy (60/288), and has been working hard to wipe out the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism and to prevent and combat terrorism. Based on its own conditions, Xinjiang has been making intensive counterterrorism and de-radicalization efforts. Upholding the principle of fighting and preventing terrorism at the same time, the autonomous region has been taking aggressive action against violent terrorist crimes, and at the same time, addressing the problem at its source. It has been making every effort to protect the fundamental human rights of citizens from violation by terrorism and extremism. Specific measures include improving public wellbeing, promoting knowledge of the law through education, and offering education and aid through vocational education and training centers in accordance with the law.

 

着力保障和改善民生。做好保障和改善民生工作,事关群众福祉、社会和谐稳定。在新疆一些地区,过去受恐怖主义危害较大,宗教极端思想对群众生产生活渗透干扰严重,危及社会稳定、经济发展、民生安全。近年来,新疆贯彻以人民为中心的发展思想,着力保障和改善民生,大力推进就业、教育、医疗、社保等领域惠民工程。持续实施南疆3年(2018年至2020年)10万人转移就业计划,已实现深度贫困家庭劳动力转移就业7.5万人;通过发展劳动密集型产业带动就业、有组织转移就业、创业带动就业,2016年至2018年,新疆累计实现城镇新增就业140.08万人次,农村富余劳动力转移就业830.5万人次;大力普及九年义务教育,实行南疆城乡一体学前3年免费教育;落实全民免费健康体检,大病保险全覆盖,农村贫困人口15种大病集中救治和慢性病签约服务全覆盖;完善社会保障体系,城乡困难群众最低生活保障标准持续提高。人民生活不断改善,反恐维稳和去极端化工作的群众基础更加牢固。

 

Making great efforts to ensure and improve public wellbeing. Public wellbeing is vital to people’s happiness and to social harmony and stability. In the past, some areas in Xinjiang suffered from terrorism, and religious extremism infiltrated people’s work and daily life, causing great damage and posing a threat to social stability, economic development, and security. In recent years, following a people-centered approach to development, Xinjiang has focused on ensuring and improving people’s standard of living and implementing projects that benefit the public in employment, education, medical care, social security, and other fields. These include:

 

  • implementing the plan of transfer employment for 100,000 laborers in southern Xinjiang in three years (2018-2020) and having realized the transfer employment of 75,000 people from families suffering extreme poverty;

 

  • adding a total of 1.4008 million new urban jobs and transferring 8.305 million surplus rural laborers for employment in Xinjiang from 2016 to 2018 through developing labor-intensive industries, organized transfer for employment, and creating jobs through business startups;

 

  • popularizing nine-year compulsory education and providing free three-year preschool education in urban and rural areas in southern Xinjiang;

 

  • offering free universal health check-up; ensuring full coverage of serious illness insurance, and ensuring full coverage of centralized treatment of 15 serious illnesses and contracted services for chronic illnesses for the poverty-stricken rural population;

 

  • improving the social security system, and ensuring that the standard of subsistence allowance for impoverished urban and rural residents is raised continuously.

 

As people’s standard of living improves, the public will provide greater support to the government’s counterterrorism, de-radicalization and stability-maintaining effort.

 

普及法律知识、增强法治意识。新疆农村地区公民法治观念比较淡薄、法律知识贫乏,容易受到恐怖势力、极端势力的教唆和胁迫走上犯罪道路。新疆高度重视普法工作,出台了《新疆维吾尔自治区法制宣传教育条例》《关于加强自治区青少年法治教育实践基地建设工作的实施意见》《关于贯彻落实〈关于实行国家机关“谁执法谁普法”普法责任制的意见〉的实施意见》等法规文件。聚焦社会稳定和长治久安总目标,面向基层群众和青少年,以弘扬法治精神、培育法治信仰、推动法治实践为主要任务,以推进法治文化建设和法治创建为抓手,以传统媒体+互联网为传播平台,以建立完善基层法治文化公共设施体系为依托,广泛深入开展“基层法治建设年”“宪法法律宣传月”“全民国家安全教育日”“法治宣讲下基层”“国旗下讲法治”“巴扎普法”等多种形式的法治宣传活动,引导各族群众明辨合法与非法的界限,增强公民自觉抵御宗教极端思想渗透的能力。

 

Popularizing understanding of the law and strengthening the sense of the rule of law. Rural residents in Xinjiang have a relatively weak sense of the rule of law, lack understanding of the law, and are vulnerable to instigation and intimidation by terrorist and extremist forces, resulting in criminal behavior. Attaching great importance to popularizing understanding of the law, Xinjiang has issued a series of legal documents, including Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Promoting Publicity and Education on the Law, Opinions on Developing Bases for Youth Education and Practice on the Rule of Law in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and Opinions on Implementing the Guideline on Adopting a Responsibility System for State Organs with the Principle that Law-Enforcing Departments Are Responsible for Publicizing the Law.

 

Focusing on the overall goal of long-term social stability, Xinjiang has carried out various forms of publicity activities on the rule of law, including “Year of Community-level Promotion of Rule of Law”, “Month of Publicizing the Constitution and Other Laws”, “Day of Universal Education on State Security”, “Promotion of Rule of Law in Communities”, “Teaching Rule of Law under the National Flag”, and “Strengthening Public Legal Awareness at Bazaars”, so as to help people of various ethnic groups to distinguish between legal and illegal conducts and improve citizens’ abilities to consciously resist the infiltration of religious extremism. These activities are designed to influence the general public, including young people, with a goal of promoting the concept of rule of law, cultivating a belief in rule of law, and advancing the practice of rule of law. They focus on raising people’s awareness about the rule of law and development of institution. They use traditional media and internet as platforms and are supported by the establishment and improvement of a community-level public service network for promoting the rule of law.

 

积极开展帮扶教育。依法设立教培中心,教育挽救有轻微犯罪行为或违法行为人员,消除恐怖主义、极端主义的影响,避免其成为恐怖主义、极端主义的牺牲品,努力将恐怖活动消灭在未发之前、萌芽状态。目前进入教培中心的学员有三方面人员:一是被教唆、胁迫、引诱参与恐怖活动、极端主义活动,或者参与恐怖活动、极端主义活动情节轻微,尚不构成犯罪的人员。二是被教唆、胁迫、引诱参与恐怖活动、极端主义活动,或者参与恐怖活动、极端主义活动,有现实危险性,尚未造成实际危害后果,主观恶性不深,能够认罪悔过,依法可以免除刑罚,自愿接受培训的人员。三是因暴力恐怖、极端主义犯罪被定罪处刑,刑满释放前经评估仍有社会危险性,人民法院依法决定在刑满释放后进行安置教育的人员。对第一、第三种人员,根据《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》第二十九条、第三十条的规定,依法进行帮教和安置教育。对第二种人员,则本着宽严相济的刑事政策,打击少数、挽救多数,将认罪悔罪、自愿接受培训作为宽大处理的条件,在依法免除刑罚后对其进行帮教。

 

Actively providing help and aid through education. Education and training centers have been established with the goal of educating and rehabilitating people guilty of minor crimes or law-breaking and eradicating the influence of terrorism and extremism, in order to prevent them from falling victim to terrorism and extremism, and to nip terrorist activities in the bud.

 

At present, the trainees at the centers fall into three categories:

 

1. People who were incited, coerced or induced into participating in terrorist or extremist activities, or people who participated in terrorist or extremist activities in circumstances that were not serious enough to constitute a crime;

 

2. People who were incited, coerced or induced into participating in terrorist or extremist activities, or people who participated in terrorist or extremist activities that posed a real danger but did not cause actual harm, whose subjective culpability was not deep, who made confessions of their crimes and were contrite about their past actions and thus can be exempted from punishment in accordance with the law, and who have demonstrated the willingness to receive training;

 

3. People who were convicted and received prison sentence for terrorist or extremist crimes and after serving their sentences, have been assessed as still posing potential threats to society, and who have been ordered by people’s courts to receive education at the centers in accordance with the law.

 

In accordance with Articles 29 and 30 of the Counterterrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China, people in the first and third categories will be placed at the centers to receive support and education. With regard to people in the second category, a small number of them should be punished severely, while the majority should be rehabilitated in accordance with the policy of striking a balance between punishment and compassion. Confession, repentance, and willingness to receive training are preconditions for leniency, and these people will receive education to help reform their ways after they have been exempted from penalty in accordance with the law.

 

教培中心是依法设立的教育培训机构。通过与学员签订培养协议,明确约定培养目标、培养方式、结业标准、考核方式,在学员考核达标后颁发结业证书。教培中心设置了以学习国家通用语言文字、法律知识、职业技能和去极端化为主要内容的教学课程,配备了骨干教师、资深职业技师,统一制定教学方案、编印教学材料、建设讲课系统,分类施教、因人施教,实现授课学习的标准化和规范化。在学习培训过程中,实行由学习国家通用语言文字到学习法律知识,再到学习职业技能的正向进阶。

 

Education and training centers are institutions established in accordance with the law. They have clear goals and methods of training, criteria for program completion, and methods of assessment, which are stated in the agreements they signed with trainees. When trainees meet the standards of assessment, they will be presented with completion certificates. The centers’ curricula consist of standard spoken and written Chinese language, law, vocational skills, and courses on the eradication of extremism. They are staffed by quality teachers and senior vocational trainers. They formulate teaching plans, compile and print teaching materials, and develop teaching systems in a unified manner. They offer tailored and even individualized education to different types of trainees. Teaching and studying at the centers have been standardized. A step-by-step approach has been adopted in the process of study and training, which begins with learning standard spoken and written Chinese language, then moves on to studying the law, and concludes with learning vocational skills.

 

针对部分学员受宗教极端思想影响,受教育程度低,使用国家通用语言文字水平差,接受现代知识、交流交往能力弱等问题,教培中心充分保障宪法赋予公民的学习和使用国家通用语言文字的权利,为其提供学习条件。通过教育培训,学员们提升了使用国家通用语言文字的能力,拓宽了获取现代知识和信息的渠道,认识到学好国家通用语言文字,才能更好适应现代社会发展。

 

In view of the fact that some trainees have been influenced by religious extremism, have not received good education, are weak in the use of standard spoken and written Chinese language, slow in acquiring modern knowledge, and have poor communication skills, the centers fully ensure citizens’ constitutional right to learn and use standard Chinese language and provide conditions for them to learn. Through education and training, the trainees have improved their competence in the use of standard Chinese language and broadened their channels to acquire modern knowledge and information. They have realized that only by mastering standard Chinese language can they better adapt to contemporary society.

 

针对学员普遍缺乏法治意识的问题,教培中心将学习法律知识作为培养学员增强国家意识、公民意识、法治意识的关键环节。聘请法官、检察官、律师等讲授《中华人民共和国宪法》《中华人民共和国刑法》《中华人民共和国民法总则》《中华人民共和国婚姻法》《中华人民共和国教育法》《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》《中华人民共和国治安管理处罚法》和《新疆维吾尔自治区去极端化条例》等法律法规。许多学员以前受宗教极端思想影响,将恐怖主义、极端主义歪曲炮制的“教法、家法”当作行为准则,无视国家法律,甚至干扰破坏法律的实施。通过学习,学员们普遍认识到作为国家公民必须遵守国家宪法法律,按照宪法法律赋予的权利和义务行事。

 

In view of the fact that the trainees have a weak awareness of rule of law, the centers regard an understanding of the law as a key link in helping the trainees to increase their sense of state, citizenship, and rule of law. They have invited judges, public procurators, and lawyers to give lectures on laws and regulations such as the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, General Provisions of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China, Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, Education Law of the People’s Republic of China, Counterterrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China, Public Security Administration Punishment Law of the People’s Republic of China, and Regulations of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on De-radicalization. Many trainees were influenced by religious extremism and their conducts closely followed the “religious law” and “domestic discipline” concocted by terrorists and extremists. They defied the law of the state, and even interfered with and sabotaged the implementation of state law. Through study, the trainees have realized that as citizens they have an obligation to abide by the Constitution and laws of the state and they should conduct themselves in accordance with the rights and obligations endowed to them by the Constitution and laws.

 

针对部分学员缺乏职业技能、就业困难等问题,教培中心将学习职业技能作为提升学员就业能力的重要途径,根据当地需求和就业条件,设置服装鞋帽加工、食品加工、电子产品组装、排版印刷、美容美发、电子商务等培训课程,对其中有愿望有条件的学员进行多技能培训,确保学员结业后能够熟练掌握1-2门职业技能。教培中心注重将课程学习与实训操作相结合,提高了学员实际操作能力。通过培训,学员们初步掌握了就业技能,部分学员已结业并实现就业。

 

In view of the fact that some trainees lack vocational skills and have difficulties finding employment, the centers regard learning vocational skills as an important way to enhance trainees’ ability to find work. Based on local demand and employment conditions, they set up training programs in the making of garments, footwear and hats, food processing, assembly of electronic products, typesetting and printing, cosmetology and hairdressing, e-business, and other courses. To those who have the will to learn multiple skills and meet the relevant qualifications, they provide such training as to ensure that the trainees can master one or two vocational skills upon completing their study at the centers. The centers attach importance to the integration of study and practice, and have elevated trainees’ practical abilities. Through training, trainees have gained rudimentary vocational skills, and some of them have completed their study at the centers and found jobs.

 

针对学员不同程度地受宗教极端思想影响的问题,教培中心将去极端化纳入教育培训全过程,通过分阶段学习法律法规、民族宗教政策和宗教知识,揭露恐怖主义、极端主义的危害,使学员深刻认识到宗教极端思想完全违背了宗教教义,是民族分裂主义和暴力恐怖主义的思想基础,从而认清了恐怖主义、极端主义的本质和危害,摆脱了恐怖主义和宗教极端思想的影响和控制。

 

In view of the fact that trainees have been influenced by religious extremism to various degrees, the centers integrate de-radicalization into the whole process of education and training. Through progressive study of laws and regulations, policies on ethnic and religious affairs, and religious knowledge, and through unveiling the hazards of terrorism and extremism, trainees have realized that religious extremism is totally against religious doctrines and constitutes the ideological base of ethnic separatism and violent terrorism. They gain a thorough understanding of the very nature and perils of terrorism and extremism, and free themselves from the influence and control of ideological terrorism and extremism.

 

教培中心实行寄宿制管理,配备辅导员、医生和后勤服务管理人员等,保障学员正常学习生活。学员可定期回家,有事请假。教培中心建有室内外体育文化活动场所,经常举办丰富多彩的文体娱乐活动。教培中心充分尊重和保护不同民族学员的风俗习惯,关心学员心理健康,提供心理咨询服务,帮助解决实际困难。教培中心根据国家法律规定,实行教育与宗教相分离,在校学员不得在校内组织、参加宗教活动。

 

The centers adopt a boarding school management system, and are staffed with instructors, doctors and personnel for logistic services and management to provide trainees with a normal study and life routine. Trainees can have home visits on a regular basis and can ask for leave to attend to private affairs. The centers are equipped with indoor and outdoor sports and cultural facilities and regularly hold such activities. The centers fully respect and protect the customs and habits of trainees of different ethnic groups, care for their mental health, offer psychological counseling services, and help them solve real-life problems. In accordance with the law, the centers adopt a policy of separating education and religion. Trainees may not organize and participate in religious activities at the centers.

 

由于有效采取了预防性反恐措施,近年来新疆社会环境发生了明显变化,正气上升,邪气下降,公民法律意识明显增强,追求现代科学技术知识和文明生活方式成为社会风尚,宗教极端思想传播受到自觉抵制,各民族交往交流交融更为紧密,人民群众的获得感、幸福感、安全感显著提升。

 

Thanks to these preventive measures, Xinjiang has witnessed a marked change in the social environment in recent years. A healthy atmosphere is spreading, while evil influences are declining. The citizens’ legal awareness has been notably enhanced. The trend in society is now to pursue knowledge of modern science and technology and a cultured way of life. Citizens now consciously resist religious extremism. The ethnic groups of Xinjiang now enjoy closer relations through communication, exchange and blending. People have a much stronger sense of fulfillment, happiness and security.

六、探索出反恐、去极端化的有益经验

VI. Finding Experience for Counterterrorism and De-radicalization

 

新疆的反恐怖主义、去极端化斗争,在吸收借鉴国际社会经验的同时,坚持从中国和中国新疆的实际出发,把保障各族人民根本利益放在首位,从彻底解决各种深层次矛盾入手,积极探索依法打击防范恐怖主义和去极端化的有效路径,最大限度地保障各族人民免受恐怖主义和极端主义的侵害,形成了一套经验和有效办法。

 

Counterterrorism and de-radicalization effort in Xinjiang is based on the reality in Xinjiang and the rest of the country, while drawing on the experience of other countries. The government prioritizes safeguarding the fundamental interests of all ethnic groups. Starting by addressing deep-seated problems, China has worked to explore effective and law-based approaches to counterterrorism and de-radicalization to protect people of all ethnic groups from the scourge of terrorism and extremism, and identified successful experiences and effective measures.

 

——坚持依法打击恐怖主义与保障人权相结合。保安全才能保人权,不反恐就不能保人权。依法打击恐怖活动,保障各族人民生命财产安全,是对人权的最根本保护。曾经一段时间,新疆恐怖活动多发频发,严重破坏了安定祥和的秩序、团结进步的氛围,肆意践踏了新疆各族群众的生命权、健康权、发展权等基本人权。面对恐怖主义暴行,新疆果断采取依法严密防范和严厉打击措施,始终保持对恐怖势力的威慑态势,最大限度地保障广大人民群众的基本人权免受恐怖主义和极端主义的侵害。目前,新疆已连续2年多未发生暴力恐怖案件,包括危安案件、公共安全事件在内的刑事案件、治安案件大幅下降,极端主义渗透得到有效遏制,社会治安状况明显好转,人民生活安宁祥和。2018年,新疆旅游业呈现“井喷式”增长,共接待境内外游客超过1.5亿人次、同比增长40%,其中外国游客240.32万人次、同比增长10.78%,旅游总消费2522亿元、同比增长41.6%。与此同时,新疆还十分注意在反恐中保障人权,避免因反恐而出现侵犯人权的行为。为此,一方面,新疆不断加强反恐立法工作,保障反恐在法治轨道上进行,依法打击恐怖主义行为;另一方面,坚决防止因反恐而发生限制新疆各民族人民群众基本权利的现象,保障人民依法享有广泛权利和自由,保障正常社会生活。

 

– Combating terrorism in accordance with the law and protecting human rights. Safety is a prerequisite for human rights protection, and human rights cannot be guaranteed if we fail to strike at terrorism. Fighting terrorist activities and protecting lives and property are fundamental to protecting human rights.

 

Terrorist activities were once frequent in Xinjiang, destroying local peace, order, unity, and progress, and showing callous disdain for the people’s right to life, health, development and other basic human rights. In the face of terrorist atrocities, the local government has launched preventive and punitive countermeasures in accordance with the law and perseveres with deterrence against terrorist forces, maximizing its efforts to protect basic human rights from terrorism and extremism. No violent or terrorist activities have occurred in Xinjiang for more than two years; the number of criminal cases and public security cases has fallen significantly; the infiltration of extremism has been curbed, and peace and harmony has returned to society. In 2018, tourism in Xinjiang grew rapidly: Tourists from inside and outside China numbered over 150 million, a year-on-year increase of 40 percent; foreign tourists totaled 2.4032 million, a year-on-year increase of 10.78 percent; tourist spending totaled RMB252.2 billion, a year-on-year growth of 41.6 percent.

 

At the same time, Xinjiang has paid special attention to human rights protection in its counterterrorism effort, preventing any violation of human rights caused by counterterrorist measures. To this end, the local government has enhanced legislation on counterterrorism, so as to keep its counterterrorism activities within the law and punish acts of terrorism in accordance with the law. It has made every effort to ensure that its counterterrorist measures do not infringe the basic rights, interests and freedoms of local ethnic groups as endowed by the law, and that normal social order is maintained.

 

——坚持反恐不与特定地域、民族、宗教挂钩。《中华人民共和国反恐怖主义法》规定:在反恐怖主义工作中,应当尊重公民的宗教信仰自由和民族风俗习惯,禁止任何基于地域、民族、宗教等理由的歧视性做法。新疆是多民族聚居和多宗教并存的地区。一方面,在反恐怖主义和去极端化斗争中,新疆禁止任何组织或个人利用宗教进行分裂国家、传播宗教极端思想、煽动民族仇恨、破坏民族团结、扰乱社会秩序、损害公民身心健康的活动;禁止利用宗教妨碍国家行政、司法、教育、文化等制度的实施;禁止利用宗教进行其他危害国家安全和利益、社会公共利益和公民合法权益的活动,防范和制止不法分子利用宗教和宗教活动制造混乱、违法犯罪。另一方面,新疆严格遵守国家宪法、法律和行政法规有关宗教信仰自由的政策和规定。在反恐怖主义和去极端化斗争中,新疆各族人民的宗教信仰自由得到了充分保障。信仰宗教和不信仰宗教完全由公民自主选择,任何组织和个人不得强制公民信仰宗教或不信仰宗教,不得歧视信仰宗教的公民或不信仰宗教的公民。新疆坚持服务和管理并重的理念,不断加强宗教教职人员培养培训,不断拓宽获得宗教知识的途径,不断改善宗教活动场所的条件,信教群众的宗教感情、信仰需求得到了充分尊重。

 

– Counterterrorism does not target any specific region, ethnic group or religion. It is stipulated in the Counterterrorism Law of the People’s Republic of China that “In counterterrorism work, citizens’ freedom in religious belief and ethnic customs shall be respected, and any discrimination based on regions, ethnic groups, religions and other grounds shall be prohibited.”

 

Xinjiang is inhabited by multiple ethnic groups composed of believers in multiple religions. In the course of counterterrorism and de-radicalization, the local government forbids any organization or individual from using religion to split the country, spread religious extremism, incite ethnic hatred, undermine ethnic unity, disturb social order, harm citizens’ physical or mental health, hinder the implementation of the country’s administrative, judicial, educational and cultural systems, or harm national security, national interests, public interests and civil rights and interests. It prevents ill-intentioned people from using religion or religious activities to create disorder or commit crimes.

 

The local government also abides by the policies and stipulations in the Constitution, other state laws and administrative regulations concerning freedom of religious belief. In the course of counterterrorism and de-radicalization, the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang have their freedom of religious belief fully protected. Citizens are entitled to choose to be religious believers or non-believers, and no organization or individual may force citizens to believe in a religion or not, nor discriminate against believers or non-believers.

 

Xinjiang attaches equal importance to services and management in addressing religious affairs. The local government has worked to enhance the training of religious staff, expand channels for them to acquire religious knowledge, and improve the conditions of venues for religious activities, so that the religious sentiments, beliefs and needs of believers are fully respected.

 

——坚持宽严相济与预防教育挽救相结合。新疆始终坚持宽严相济刑事政策和教育挽救的措施方法,对少数十恶不赦、顽固不化的暴恐团伙头目、骨干分子,严惩不贷、依法处理,最大限度保障公民的基本人权免遭恐怖主义和极端主义侵害;对多数罪行较轻和受宗教极端思想影响的人员,以教育、挽救、保护为主,通过开展职业技能教育培训,帮助学员学习国家通用语言文字,学习法律,学习劳动技能,用拉的方式而不是推的方式,用挽救的方式而不是严惩的方式,用关爱的方式而不是嫌弃的方式进行帮教转化。通过学习教育,让他们提升明辨是非、抵御渗透和自我转化的能力,最大限度摆脱恐怖主义影响、摆脱极端思想束缚、摆脱陈规陋习禁锢,努力提升就业技能、开拓就业门路、激发生活信心,充分体现了政府人道主义立场。

 

– Balancing compassion and severity and taking measures for prevention, education and rehabilitation. Xinjiang follows the criminal justice policy of balancing compassion and severity, and taking the approach of reforming the offenders through education. A few leaders and core members of violent and terrorist gangs who have committed heinous crimes or are inveterate offenders will be severely punished in accordance with the law so as to protect citizens’ basic human rights from the scourge of terrorism and extremism. Offenders who have committed minor crimes under the influence of religious extremism will be educated, rehabilitated and protected through vocational training, through the learning of standard Chinese language and labor skills, and acquiring knowledge of the law; these people are large in number. The approach to the second group of people is rehabilitation rather than punishment, care instead of rejection. Through such education, they will improve their ability to distinguish right from wrong, to resist infiltration, and to correct themselves. They will rid themselves of terrorist influence, the extremist mindset, and outmoded cultural practices. They will increase their employability, expand their employment channels, and become more confident in life. This approach clearly demonstrates the humanitarian stance of the Chinese government.

 

——坚持维护稳定与改善民生相结合。人民幸福生活是最大的人权。做好保障和改善民生工作,事关群众福祉和社会和谐稳定。在新疆一些地区,由于过去一段时期受恐怖主义危害较大,受宗教极端主义渗透干扰严重,部分群众使用国家通用语言文字能力较弱、法治意识淡薄、职业技能不强,导致就业困难,容易受到恐怖势力和极端势力的教唆和胁迫走上犯罪道路。社会稳定和人民生活的持续改善,有力促进了人的全面发展,新疆各族群众精神面貌焕然一新,积极追求现代文明生活、自觉抵制宗教极端思想的社会氛围日渐浓厚,各民族之间更加团结和谐,反恐维稳和去极端化工作的社会基础更加牢固,各族群众对未来美好生活充满希望。

 

– Maintaining stability and improving the standards of living. Happiness is the most important human right. Safeguarding and improving people’s lives contributes to public wellbeing and social harmony and stability.

 

Some areas in Xinjiang were severely disturbed by terrorism and the infiltration of religious extremism. For this reason, some people cannot speak, read or write in standard Chinese, have a weak understanding of rule of law, and have difficulty finding employment through a lack of employable skills. As a result, such people are more inclined to be incited or coerced into criminality by terrorist and extremist forces.

 

Social stability and better lives promote all-round human development. The people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang are leading a new life. They pursue a cultured way of life, and consciously resist religious extremism. More than ever before, ethnic groups in Xinjiang are united and live in harmony, and popular support for counterterrorism, maintenance of stability and de-radicalization is increasing. The people of Xinjiang are full of hope for a better future.

七、积极参与反恐国际交流与合作

VII. International Counterterrorism Exchanges and Cooperation

 

近年来,恐怖主义、极端主义全球蔓延,给人类社会带来重大灾难。2001年9月11日,美国发生震惊世界的恐怖袭击事件,2996人死亡。2002年10月12日,印度尼西亚巴厘岛汽车炸弹袭击事件,202人死亡。2004年3月11日,西班牙马德里列车连环爆炸案,190人死亡、1500余人受伤。2004年9月1日,俄罗斯别斯兰人质事件,造成包括186名未成年人在内的335人死亡、958人受伤。2005年7月7日,英国伦敦连环爆炸案,52人死亡、700多人受伤。2008年11月26日,印度孟买连环恐怖袭击案,195人死亡、近300人受伤。2011年7月22日,挪威奥斯陆爆炸枪击事件,77人死亡。2013年9月21日,肯尼亚内罗毕恐怖袭击事件,72人死亡、168人受伤。2015年11月13日,法国巴黎系列恐怖袭击事件,132人死亡、300多人受伤。2016年3月22日,比利时布鲁塞尔连环爆炸案,35人死亡、300多人受伤。2016年12月19日,德国柏林恐怖袭击事件,12人死亡、49人受伤。2017年1月1日,土耳其伊斯坦布尔恐怖袭击事件,39人死亡、69人受伤。2017年11月24日,埃及北西奈省恐怖袭击事件,235人死亡、109人受伤。据不完全统计,2018年全球发生1127起恐怖袭击事件,造成13000多人死亡。

 

The global spread of terrorism and extremism over the years has inflicted agony on humanity. Some of the most notorious terrorist attacks include: the September 11 attacks in 2001 that killed 2,996 people in the US; the Bali bombings on October 12, 2002 that killed 202 people in Indonesia; the Madrid train bombings on March 11, 2004 that killed 190 and injured over 1,500 people in Spain; the Beslan school siege on September 1, 2004 that killed 335 people, including 186 minors, and injured 958 people in Russia; the London bombings on July 7, 2005 that killed 52 and injured over 700 people in the UK; the Mumbai attacks on November 26, 2008 that killed 195 and injured close to 300 people in India; the shooting on July 22, 2011 that killed 77 people in Oslo, Norway; the Westgate shopping mall attack on September 21, 2013 that killed 72 and injured 168 people in Nairobi, Kenya; the Paris attacks on November 13, 2015 that killed 132 and injured more than 300 people in France; the Brussels bombings on March 22, 2016 that killed 35 and injured over 300 persons in Belgium; the Berlin truck attack on December 19, 2016 that killed 12 and injured 49 people in Germany; the Istanbul nightclub shooting on January 1, 2017 that killed 39 and injured 69 people in Turkey; the Sinai mosque attack on November 24, 2017 that killed 235 and injured 109 people in Egypt. According to incomplete statistics, in 2018 there were 1,127 terrorist attacks globally, causing 13,000 deaths.

 

恐怖主义、极端主义已成为当今世界一大公害,严重威胁世界和平与发展,严重危害世界人民生命财产安全。严厉打击恐怖主义,深入开展去极端化工作,是国际社会的共同责任,也是保障人权的必然选择。

 

Throughout the world, terrorism and extremism gravely threaten peace and development, and endanger the life and property of individuals. Striking aggressively at terrorism and furthering the de-radicalization effort is the common responsibility of the international community and essential to the protection of human rights.

 

中国反对任何形式的恐怖主义、极端主义,反对将恐怖主义、极端主义与特定国家、民族、宗教挂钩,反对在反恐问题上采取“双重标准”;倡导综合施策、标本兼治,既严厉打击恐怖主义活动,又致力于消除贫困,铲除滋生恐怖主义的土壤;主张在相互尊重、平等协商基础上,加强国际反恐务实合作。

 

China opposes all forms of terrorism and extremism, and opposes double standards on fighting terrorism. It opposes linking terrorism and extremism with specific countries, ethnic groups or religions. It advocates comprehensive measures to address both the symptoms and the root causes, with the dual purposes of striking at terrorist activities and eliminating poverty, so that there will be no room for terrorism to breed. It supports more pragmatic international cooperation in the fight against terrorism on the basis of mutual respect and consultation on an equal footing.

 

作为国际社会负责任一员,中国政府积极支持联合国在国际反恐合作中发挥主导和协调作用,坚持遵循《联合国宪章》和其他国际法原则准则,支持联合国安理会通过的一系列反恐决议,大力推动《联合国全球反恐战略》全面实施。中国已加入《制止恐怖主义爆炸的国际公约》《制止向恐怖主义提供资助的国际公约》《制止核恐怖行为国际公约》《反对劫持人质国际公约》等绝大多数国际反恐公约。在上海合作组织框架下,中国与有关国家签署了《打击恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义上海公约》《上海合作组织成员国合作打击恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义构想》《上海合作组织反恐怖主义公约》《上海合作组织反极端主义公约》《上海合作组织成员国合作打击恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义2019-2021年合作纲要》《上海合作组织成员国和阿富汗伊斯兰共和国关于打击恐怖主义、毒品走私和有组织犯罪行动计划》等文件。通过联合反恐演习、联合边防行动、打击“三股势力”网络违法活动、大型国际活动安保、情报交流、司法合作等双边、多边反恐机制,中国与各有关国家开展了大量卓有成效的反恐交流与合作,在维护国际和地区安全稳定方面发挥了重要作用。

 

As a responsible member of the international community, China supports the United Nations in playing a leading and coordinating role in international cooperation against terrorism. China upholds the UN Charter and other principles and norms of international law. It has supported a series of resolutions on combating terrorism adopted by the UN Security Council, and contributed to the full implementation of the UN Global Counterterrorism Strategy. China has joined most of the international counterterrorism conventions, including the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, and the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages.

 

Under the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), China and countries involved have signed the following documents: the Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism, Cooperation Between SCO Member States on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism, SCO Convention on Combating Terrorism, SCO Convention on Combating Extremism, SCO Cooperation Programme on Fighting Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism for 2019-2021, and SCO Plan of Action for Cooperation with Islamic Republic of Afghanistan on Fighting Terrorism, Drug Trafficking and Organized Crimes.

 

China has carried out a number of fruitful counterterrorism exchanges and cooperation with relevant countries through such bilateral and multilateral mechanisms as joint anti-terrorism exercises, joint border defense operations, and suppression of illegal cyberspace activities by terrorist, separatist and extremist forces, as well as security cooperation, intelligence exchange, and judicial cooperation during major international events. It has played an important role in maintaining international and regional security and stability.

 

新疆是中国反恐怖主义的主战场。近年来,在中央政府的关心支持下,新疆地区与周边国家建立了边境地区和执法部门反恐领域对口合作机制,在情报信息交流、边境联合管控、涉恐人员查缉、反恐怖融资、打击网络恐怖主义、打击跨国犯罪、司法协助、跨国油气管道安保等方面,进行了务实交流与合作。同时,积极借鉴国际反恐和去极端化经验,结合本地区实际,有效开展了反恐怖主义斗争和去极端化工作,取得了阶段性成果,为国际反恐斗争作出了贡献。

 

Xinjiang is a key battlefield in the fight against terrorism in China. In recent years, under the care and support of the central government, Xinjiang has established cooperation mechanisms with neighboring countries on fighting terrorism in border areas and between law-enforcement departments. Pragmatic exchanges and cooperation have been carried out in intelligence, joint border control, the investigation and capture of suspected terrorists, cutting off funds for terrorism, suppression of cyberspace terrorism and transnational crimes, judicial assistance, and cross-border oil and gas pipeline security. Drawing experience from global efforts, Xinjiang has contributed to the international fight on terrorism through effective counterterrorism and de-radicalization campaigns based on its regional realities.

 

结束语

Conclusion

 

毫无疑问,中国新疆反恐怖主义和去极端化斗争,是国际反恐斗争的重要组成部分,为国际反恐斗争作出了重要贡献。新疆依法预防和打击恐怖主义、极端主义,维护了社会稳定,促进了文明进步,满足了人民对安全稳定生产生活环境的殷切期盼,最大限度地保障了各族人民群众的基本权利。

 

There is no doubt that Xinjiang’s fight against terrorism and extremism is an important component of the global struggle, and has made an important contribution to the latter. While preventing and combating terrorism and extremism in accordance with the law, Xinjiang has maintained social stability and promoted social progress in the region, meeting the people’s aspirations for a safe and stable environment to live and work in, and ensuring the basic rights of all ethnic groups to the greatest extent.

 

当今世界,面对恐怖主义、极端主义的严峻挑战,任何国家都无法置身事外、独善其身。世界各国只有进一步增强人类命运共同体意识,摒弃“双重标准”,增进政治互信,凝聚战略共识,促进交流合作,才能更有效遏制和打击恐怖主义、极端主义,维护世界和平与安宁。

 

In today’s world, faced with the severe challenges of terrorism and extremism, no country can shy away from them. Only by strengthening our community of shared future, abandoning double standards, enhancing political mutual trust, reaching strategic consensus, and promoting exchanges and cooperation, can we effectively curb and combat terrorism and extremism in the interests of world peace and stability.

 

在以习近平同志为核心的中共中央坚强领导下,在全国人民的大力支持下,经过新疆各族人民的共同奋斗,新疆反恐怖主义和去极端化斗争取得了重要阶段性成果。但是,“三股势力”及其影响依然存在,“东突”势力依然在伺机制造事端,新疆反恐怖主义和去极端化斗争形势依然严峻复杂。新疆将紧紧围绕社会稳定和长治久安总目标,依法反恐、保障人权、发展经济、改善民生,努力建设团结和谐、繁荣富裕、文明进步、安居乐业的中国特色社会主义新疆。

 

Under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core, with the strong support of the people across the country, and through the joint effort of all the ethnic groups of Xinjiang, China has made significant progress in its counterterrorism and de-radicalization efforts in Xinjiang. However, the three forces of terrorism, separatism and extremism are not gone; their influence can still be felt. And the “East Turkistan” forces are in search of opportunities to create trouble. We still face a severe and complex situation in combating terrorism and extremism in Xinjiang. Focusing on social stability and lasting peace, Xinjiang will continue to fight terrorism in accordance with the law, ensure human rights, develop the economy, improve people’s lives, and build a united, harmonious, prosperous, and culturally advanced socialist society where people live and work in peace and contentment.

抱歉,此资源仅限VIP下载,请先
虚拟货币,支付后概不退回。
weinxin
英文巴士公众号
扫一扫,获取最新资讯。
avatar