双语:《中国保障宗教信仰自由的政策和实践》白皮书

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摘要

Full Text: China’s Policies and Practices on Protecting Freedom of Religious Belief

China issued a white paper about its policies and practices on protecting freedom of religious belief on April 3, 2018

中国保障宗教信仰自由的政策和实践

China’s Policies and Practices on Protecting Freedom of Religious Belief

 

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

 

2018年4月

April 2018

 

目录

Contents

 

前言

Preamble

 

一、保障宗教信仰自由的基本政策

I. Basic Policies in Protecting Freedom of Religious Belief

 

二、宗教信仰自由权利的法律保障

II. Legal Guarantees for Freedom of Religious Belief

 

三、宗教活动有序开展

III. Conducting Religious Activities in an Orderly Manner

 

四、宗教界的作用得到充分发挥

IV. The Role of Religious Groups Has Been Fully Developed

 

五、宗教关系积极健康

V. Active and Healthy Religious Relations

 

结束语

Conclusion

 

前言

Preamble

 

中国是共产党领导的社会主义国家。中国始终坚持从本国国情和宗教实际出发,实行宗教信仰自由政策,保障公民宗教信仰自由权利,构建积极健康的宗教关系,维护宗教和睦与社会和谐。中共十八大以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,中国全面推进依法治国,把宗教工作纳入国家治理体系,用法律调节涉及宗教的各种社会关系,宗教工作法治化水平不断提高。信教公民和不信教公民相互尊重、和睦相处,积极投身改革开放和社会主义现代化建设,共同为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦贡献力量。

 

As a socialist country under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), China adopts policies on freedom of religious belief based on national and religious conditions to protect citizens’ right to freedom of religious belief, build active and healthy religious relationships, and maintain religious and social harmony. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China, under the staunch leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as the core, has advanced law-based governance in all respects, integrating religious work into the national governance system, employing laws to deal with all social relationships concerning religion, and improving the management of religious work under the rule of law. Religious believers and non-believers respect each other, and live in harmony, committing themselves to reform and opening-up and the socialist modernization, and contribute to the realization of the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.

 

一、保障宗教信仰自由的基本政策

I. Basic Policies in Protecting Freedom of Religious Belief

 

中国实行宗教信仰自由政策,依法管理宗教事务,坚持独立自主自办原则,积极引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应,最大限度团结广大信教公民和不信教公民。

 

China adopts policies on freedom of religious belief, manages religious affairs in accordance with the law, adheres to the principle of independence and self-management, actively guides religions to adapt to the socialist society, and unites religious believers and non-believers to the greatest extent.

 

实行宗教信仰自由政策。尊重和保护宗教信仰自由是中国共产党和中国政府对待宗教的基本政策。每个公民既有信仰宗教的自由,也有不信仰宗教的自由;有信仰某一种宗教的自由,也有在同一宗教中信仰某个教派的自由;有过去不信教而现在信教的自由,也有过去信教而现在不信教的自由。信教公民同不信教公民一样,享有同等政治及经济社会文化等方面的权利,不会因信仰不同造成权利上的不平等。国家尊重公民宗教信仰自由,保护正常宗教活动;公民行使宗教信仰自由权利,不得妨碍其他公民的合法权利,不得强制他人信仰宗教,不得歧视不信教或者信仰其他宗教的公民,不得利用宗教妨害公民合法权益。行使宗教信仰自由权利必须尊重公序良俗,尊重文化传统和社会伦理道德。

 

Adopting policies on freedom of religious belief. Respecting and protecting freedom of religious belief is a basic policy of the CPC and the Chinese government. Every citizen enjoys the freedom to choose whether to believe in a religion; to believe in a certain religion or a denomination of the same religion; to change from a non-believer to a believer and vice versa. Believers and non-believers enjoy the same political, economic, social and cultural rights, and must not be treated differently because of a difference in belief. The state respects citizens’ freedom to religious belief and protects their normal religious activities. In exercising their right to free religious belief, believers should not interfere in the lawful rights of other people, or force others to believe in any religion. Believers should not discriminate against non-believers or believers of other religions. No one shall use religion to interfere in the lawful rights and interests of citizens. Believers should respect public order, customs, cultural traditions and social ethics in exercising their freedom of religious belief.

 

依法管理宗教事务。国家对待各宗教一律平等,一视同仁,不以行政力量发展或禁止某个宗教,任何宗教都不能超越其他宗教在法律上享有特殊地位。国家依法对涉及国家利益和社会公共利益的宗教事务进行管理,但不干涉宗教内部事务。国家依法保护公民宗教信仰自由权利,保护正常宗教活动和宗教界合法权益,制止非法宗教活动,禁止利用宗教宣传极端思想和从事极端活动,抵御境外势力利用宗教进行渗透,打击利用宗教进行的违法犯罪活动。信教公民应当遵守宪法、法律、法规和规章。宗教在国家法律范围内开展活动,不得干预行政、司法、教育等国家职能的实施。不得恢复已经被废除的宗教封建特权,不得利用宗教从事危害社会稳定、民族团结和国家安全的活动。

 

Managing religious affairs in accordance with the law. The state treats all religions fairly and equally, and does not exercise administrative power to encourage or ban any religion. No religion is given preferential treatment above other religions to enjoy special legal privileges. The state manages religious affairs involving national and social public interests in accordance with the law but does not interfere in the internal affairs of religions. The state protects citizens’ right to freedom of religious belief, normal religious activities and the lawful rights and interests of religious groups, bans illegal religious activities, prohibits the dissemination of extremist thought and engagement in extremist activities in the name of religion, resists the infiltration of hostile foreign forces taking advantage of religion, and fights against illegal and criminal activities under the guise of religion. Believers should abide by the Constitution, laws, rules and regulations of the country. Religious activities should be carried out within the bounds of the law. No religion should interfere in the implementation of administrative, judicial and educational functions of the state. No abolished religious and feudal privileges should be resumed. No activities which employ religion to endanger social stability, national unity and state security are allowed to be carried out.

 

坚持独立自主自办原则。宗教团体和宗教事务不受外国势力的支配,是中国宪法确定的原则。中国政府依照宪法和法律,支持各宗教坚持独立自主自办原则,各宗教团体、宗教教职人员和信教公民自主办理宗教事业。独立自主自办原则是中国人民在民族独立、社会进步的斗争中,基于天主教和基督教长期被殖民主义、帝国主义所控制和利用,被称作“洋教”的屈辱历史,由中国信教公民自主作出的历史性选择。这一原则,顺应了中国人民谋求民族独立、人民解放的历史潮流,顺应了实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦的时代要求,使中国宗教的面貌焕然一新,得到国际宗教友好人士的普遍理解、尊重和支持。坚持独立自主自办原则,不是要断绝中国宗教组织同境外宗教组织的正常联系。中国政府支持和鼓励各宗教在独立自主、平等友好、相互尊重的基础上,开展对外交流交往,建立、发展、巩固同海外宗教界的友好关系,增信释疑,展示良好形象。对境外组织和个人利用宗教从事各种违反中国宪法、法律、法规和政策的活动,控制中国宗教组织、干涉中国宗教事务,甚至企图颠覆中国政权和社会主义制度,中国政府坚决反对并将依法处置。

 

Adhering to the principle of independence and self-management. Religious groups and religious affairs are not subject to control by foreign countries; this principle is enshrined in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. The Chinese government supports all religions in upholding the principle of independence and self-management, allowing religious groups, clerical personnel and believers to manage religious affairs themselves in accordance with the Constitution and law. This principle is a historic choice made by Chinese religious believers in the Chinese people’s struggle for national independence and social progress, as Catholicism and Protestantism, which were known as foreign religions in China, had long been controlled and utilized by colonialists and imperialists. The establishment of this principle conforms to the historical trend of the Chinese people’s search for national independence and liberation, to the demands of the times to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, and as a result, religions in China have taken on an entirely new look, winning widespread understanding, respect and support of friendly religious believers around the world. Adhering to the principle of independence and self-management does not mean the severing of normal connections between religious organizations in China and their foreign counterparts. The Chinese government supports and encourages all its religions to conduct international exchanges, to build, develop and consolidate friendly relations with religious groups overseas, to enhance mutual trust and eliminate misgivings, and to present a positive image based on independence, equality and mutual respect. The Chinese government will resolutely oppose and deal with foreign organizations and individuals engaging in activities which violate China’s Constitution, laws, regulations and policies, their attempts to control China’s religious organizations, to interfere in China’s religious affairs and to subvert the Chinese government and socialist system under the guise of religion.

 

积极引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应。积极引导宗教与社会主义社会相适应,就是要引导信教公民热爱祖国、热爱人民,维护祖国统一,维护中华民族大团结,服从服务于国家最高利益和中华民族整体利益;就是要引导宗教界拥护中国共产党领导、拥护社会主义制度,坚持走中国特色社会主义道路,坚持宗教中国化方向,积极践行社会主义核心价值观,弘扬中华优秀传统文化,努力把宗教教义教规同中华优秀传统文化相融合,遵守国家法律法规,自觉接受国家依法管理。

 

Actively guiding religions in adapting to the socialist society. Actively guiding religions in adapting to the socialist society means guiding religious believers to love their country and compatriots, safeguard national unity, ethnic solidarity, be subordinate to and serve the overall interests of the nation and the Chinese people. It also means guiding religious groups to support the leadership of the CPC and the socialist system; uphold and follow the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics; develop religions in the Chinese context; embrace core socialist values; carry forward China’s fine traditions; integrate religious teachings and rules with Chinese culture; abide by state laws and regulations, and accept state administration in accordance with the law.

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