双语:《新疆人权事业的发展进步》白皮书

摘要

Human Rights in Xinjiang – Development and Progress

《新疆人权事业的发展进步》白皮书

新疆人权事业的发展进步

Human Rights in Xinjiang – Development and Progress

 

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室

The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

 

2017年6月

June 2017

 

目录

Contents

 

前言

Foreword

 

一、政治权利

I. Political Rights

 

二、公民权利

II. Civil Rights

 

三、经济权利

III. Economic Rights

 

四、社会权利

IV. Social Rights

 

五、文化权利

V. Cultural Rights

 

六、环境权利

Environmental Rights

 

七、宗教信仰自由权利

VII. Right to Freedom of Religious Belief

 

八、妇女、儿童、老年人、残疾人权利

VIII. Rights of Women, Children, the Elderly and Disabled

 

前言

Foreword

 

实现充分的人权是人类长期追求的理想,也是包括新疆各族人民在内的全中国人民长期为之奋斗的目标。

 

Realization of full human rights is an ideal, one that humankind has pursued for as long as we can remember. It is also a goal that the Chinese people, including people of the various ethnic groups in Xinjiang, have worked hard to reach.

 

1949年中华人民共和国成立前,新疆各族人民遭受着外国侵略势力、封建剥削阶级和宗教特权阶层的压迫,社会地位极其低下,无法享有基本人权。新中国的成立和社会主义制度的确立,为新疆各族人民真正享有人权奠定了根本政治前提和制度基础。1955年,中国在新疆实行民族区域自治制度,进一步保障了新疆各族人民当家作主的权利。自1978年中国实行改革开放以来,新疆经济社会发展进入了一个新的历史时期,各族人民的人权保障水平不断提升。

 

Before the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, the ethnic groups of Xinjiang suffered oppression from invading foreign forces, the feudal exploiting class and the privileged religious hierarchy. At the bottom of the social ladder, they were deprived of basic human rights. The founding of the PRC and the socialist system prepared a fundamental political prerequisite and laid the institutional basis for the people of Xinjiang’s ethnic groups to enjoy such rights. In 1955, the system of regional ethnic autonomy was implemented in Xinjiang, offering further guarantee to the Xinjiang people in exercising their right as masters of the country. Since 1978, when China launched its epoch-making reform and opening-up drive, a new historical phase has been ushered in the economic and social development of Xinjiang, and people of the various ethnic groups in Xinjiang have seen great progress in the protection of their human rights.

 

长期以来,中央始终高度重视新疆工作,采取切实有力举措,发展经济,改善民生,增进人民福祉,促进民族团结进步,保障各族人民的基本权利。特别是中共十八大以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央,坚持以人民为中心,以创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念为引领,全面推进经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设,十分关心新疆的发展进步,始终情系新疆、心系新疆各族人民,举全国之力发展新疆。近年来,中央着眼党和国家事业发展全局,不断丰富和发展治疆方略,把社会稳定和长治久安作为新疆工作总目标,坚持依法治疆、团结稳疆、长期建疆,坚持各民族共同团结奋斗、共同繁荣发展,坚持以保障和改善民生为重点,大力发展新疆各项事业,切实保障各族人民平等参与、平等发展权利,共享发展成果,使新疆的人权事业不断得到新的发展和进步。

 

The central government has over the years set great store by Xinjiang. It has taken effective measures to develop the economy, improve people’s living standards, enhance the well-being of the public, promote ethnic unity and progress, and safeguard the basic rights of all ethnic groups. In particular, since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) was held in 2012, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core has worked hard to promote economic, political, cultural, social and ecological progress across the country. This means following the people-oriented principle, and forging new ideas of innovative, coordinated, green, and open development shared by all. Committed to the progress of Xinjiang and its people, the CPC Central Committee has pooled the strength of the nation to develop the region. In recent years, it has, proceeding from the overall development of the causes of the Party and state, constantly enriched and developed its core strategies for the development and governance of Xinjiang by making maintaining the social order and lasting political stability the overall objective of work in relation to Xinjiang. It called governing Xinjiang in accordance with law, maintaining stability in Xinjiang through ethnic solidarity, and being committed to the development of Xinjiang for a long time to come; keeping to the goal of all ethnic groups working together for common prosperity and development; making energetic efforts to press forward with the development of various undertakings in Xinjiang and focusing on the protection and improvement of the people’s living standards; and taking all necessary steps to ensure the people of various ethnic groups the equal right to participation and in development, and equal access to the fruits of development.

 

一、政治权利

I. Political Rights

 

新疆自古以来就是多民族聚居的地方,目前有56个民族。不论人口多少、发展程度高低、宗教信仰差异,新疆各族人民都具有同等地位,依法享有相同权利,履行相同义务,公民的政治权利得到了充分保障。

 

Xinjiang has been home to numerous ethnic groups since remote antiquity, and there are now 56 ethnic groups residing on this vast piece of land. Irrespective of their size of population, degree of development, and religious faith, the people of all Xinjiang’s ethnic groups enjoy the same status and the same rights, and must fulfill the same obligations in accordance with the law. Their political rights as citizens are fully protected.

 

民族区域自治制度得到贯彻落实。民族区域自治制度的确立,为新疆各族人民在维护国家统一原则下,充分行使自治权利,自主管理地方事务,平等参与管理国家事务提供了有力的制度保障。自治区立法机关根据宪法和法律,既享有普通省级行政区地方立法权,又享有根据本区域政治、经济和文化特点制定自治条例、单行条例的立法权。截至2016年年底,自治区人民代表大会及其常委会共制定区域特色的地方性法规372件,其中现行有效的地方性法规153件,作出法规性决议、决定52件,批准设区的市、自治州、自治县报批的单行条例和地方性法规113件。

 

The system of regional ethnic autonomy is in place. Based on the principle of safeguarding national unity, the system of regional ethnic autonomy provides a strong institutional guarantee for the ethnic groups of Xinjiang to exercise their right of autonomy, administer their own local affairs, and participate as equals in administering state affairs. According to China’s Constitution and relevant state laws, the legislature of the autonomous region, while enjoying the legislative power entitled to provincial-level administrative divisions as prescribed by law, has the power to enact regulations on the exercise of regional autonomy and other particular regulations in line with the local political, economic and cultural conditions. By the end of 2016, the autonomous regional people’s congress and its standing committee had formulated in total 372 local regulations (including 153 already in effect), passed 52 regulatory resolutions and decisions, and approved 113 separate regulations and other regulations submitted by the various cities, autonomous prefectures or autonomous counties.

 

选举权和被选举权得到充分保障。在新疆,年满18周岁公民依法享有选举权和被选举权。依照宪法与法律规定,各族人民直接选举县(市、区)、乡(镇)人民代表大会代表,在此基础上又选举出全国和自治区、州(市)人民代表大会代表。第十二届全国人民代表大会共有新疆代表60名,其中少数民族代表38名,占63.33%。第十二届新疆维吾尔自治区人民代表大会共有代表550名,其中少数民族代表363名,占66%。

 

The right to vote and right to be elected are fully protected. In Xinjiang, as elsewhere in China, citizens aged 18 or above enjoy the right to vote and the right to be elected in accordance with the law. As the Constitution and relevant state laws prescribe, people of all ethnic groups in the autonomous region directly elect deputies to the people’s congresses at county (city or urban district) and township (town) levels, and these deputies then elect deputies to the prefecture (prefecture-level city) people’s congress, the people’s congress of the autonomous region, and the National People’s Congress (NPC). The 12th NPC has a total of 60 deputies from Xinjiang, of whom 38 (63 percent) are from ethnic minority groups. The 12th People’s Congress of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is formed by 550 deputies, of whom 363 (66 percent) are of ethnic minority origins.

 

协商民主稳步推进。在协商民主的制度框架内,自治区各级政协积极创新协商形式、丰富协商内容、搭建协商平台,广泛吸收各族各界人士参政议政,初步形成了宽领域、多层次、常态化的协商民主格局。各级政协委员深入调研,踊跃提交提案,积极反映社情民意,主动进行民主监督。第十二届全国政协委员中,住新疆的有31名,其中少数民族委员18名,占58.1%。第十一届新疆维吾尔自治区政协有委员479名,其中少数民族委员228名,占47.6%。截至2017年3月,第十一届新疆维吾尔自治区政协共提交提案4920件,涉及政治、经济、文化、教育、科技等领域。

 

Steady progress has been observed in consultative democracy. Within the institutional framework of consultative democracy, the CPPCC (Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference) organizations at all levels in the autonomous region have actively innovated the forms, enriched the content and developed platforms of consultation to encourage more extensive participation and administration of state affairs by people from all ethnic groups and all walks of life, thus bringing into place initially a wide-ranging and multi-tiered regular framework of consultative democracy. Members of CPPCC organizations at all levels have conducted in-depth research and drafted bills that actively reflect social conditions and public opinion; they constantly pursue initiatives to facilitate democratic scrutiny. Among members of the 12th CPPCC National Committee, 31 come from Xinjiang, of whom 18 (58 percent) are members of ethnic minorities. The 11th CPPCC of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has 479 members, of whom 228 (48 percent) are members of ethnic minorities. As of March 2017, the 11th CPPCC of Xinjiang had submitted a total of 4,920 proposals covering politics, the economy, culture, education, science and technology and other fields.

 

少数民族参政权得到保证。作为全国唯一三级自治地方(区、州、县)俱全的自治区,新疆设有5个自治州、6个自治县。自治地方的各级人民代表大会和人民政府行使管理本地区事务的权力,自治区主席、自治州州长、自治县县长均由实行区域自治的民族公民担任。1950年,新疆少数民族干部仅有约3000人,1955年增加到4.6万人。2016年,全区少数民族公务员已达91076人,占干部总数的40.24%。其中,少数民族妇女干部占全区妇女干部总数的66%以上。

 

The right of ethnic minority groups to participate in public affairs is guaranteed. Xinjiang is the only autonomous region in China with all three levels of autonomous divisions (i.e., autonomous region, autonomous prefecture and autonomous county). It now has under its jurisdiction five autonomous prefectures and six autonomous counties. People’s congresses and people’s governments of these autonomous administrative divisions at different levels exercise the autonomous power to administer their local affairs. Chairperson of the autonomous region, governors of autonomous prefectures, and heads of autonomous counties are all citizens from the ethnic groups exercising regional autonomy of the said areas. In 1950, there were only about 3,000 ethnic minority officials in Xinjiang. By 1955, this figure had increased to 46,000. In 2016, the number of ethnic minority officials in the region’s civil service reached 91,076, accounting for 40 percent of the region’s total. Of them, women officials of ethnic minority origins accounted for more than 66 percent of the total of female officials in Xinjiang.

 

基层民主权利得到保障和落实。修订并实施《新疆维吾尔自治区实施〈中华人民共和国村民委员会组织法〉办法》《新疆维吾尔自治区村民委员会选举办法》《新疆维吾尔自治区村务公开办法》,制定《关于进一步规范和加强社区工作的意见》和《关于加强乡镇政府服务能力建设的实施意见》,基层法制建设不断完善。基层群众自治制度更加健全,民主选举、民主管理、民主监督和事务公开制度日益完善。基层民主协商进一步制度化、规范化、程序化。

 

Community-level democratic rights are guaranteed and respected. The Measures of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region for Implementing the Organic Law of the Villagers’ Committees of the People’s Republic of China, the Procedures of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on the Election of the Villagers’ Committee, and the Implementation Measures of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Making Village Affairs Transparent have been revised and implemented. The Opinions on Regulating and Strengthening Community Work, and the Implementation Opinions on Building Stronger Service Capabilities for Town and Township Governments have been formulated. Steady improvement has been seen in the community-level legal framework. The system of community-level self-governance is being strengthened, while systems of democratic election, democratic management, democratic supervision, and publicity of affairs have kept improving. Well-defined systems, standards and procedures are being followed in community-level democratic consultation.

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